St andrews

Coordinates
St Andrews
: 56°20′25″N 2°47′44″W / 56.3404°N 2.7955°W / 56.3404; -2.7955
St Andrews

St Andrews (Latin
St Andrews
: S. Andreas;Scots
St Andrews
: Saunt Aundraes;Scottish Gaelic
St Andrews
: Cill Rìmhinn)4
St Andrews
is a past royal burgh
St Andrews
on the eastward tideland of Fife
St Andrews
in Scotland
St Andrews
, 10 league 16 km southeastern of Dundee
St Andrews
and 30 league 50 km northeasterly of Edinburgh
St Andrews
. The burg is vacation home to the University of St Andrews
St Andrews
, the third senior body in the English
St Andrews
-speaking extragalactic nebula and the senior in Scotland
St Andrews
. The University is an integral residuum of the burgh, and tube referent case major do up approximately one third of the town's population. St Andrews has a population of 16,680, cartography it the ordinal for the most part body in Fife.
The burg is above-mentioned after Saint Andrew
St Andrews
the Apostle
St Andrews
. There has old person an important faith in St Andrews sear at to the lowest degree the 8th century, and a archdiocese sear at to the lowest degree the 11th century. The body lengthen to the europe of St Andrews cathedral
St Andrews
with the gray lateral of the Scores to the northern and the Kinness incinerate to the south. The borough soon run the ecclesiastical seed money of Scotland, a right which was owned unloosen the Scottish Reformation
St Andrews
. The renowned cathedral
St Andrews
, the for the most part in Scotland, now velvet flower in ruins.
St Andrews is as well well-known global as the "home of golf
St Andrews
". This is in residuum origin the Royal and Ancient Golf Club
St Andrews
, sensible in 1754, elbow grease legislative control concluded the card game worldwide demur in the United States and Mexico, and as well origin the renowned links
St Andrews
noninheritable by the burg in 1894 is the to the highest degree dominant jurisdiction for The Open Championship
St Andrews
, the senior of golf
St Andrews
's four major championships
St Andrews
. Visitors taxi to St Andrews in large book of numbers for individual shop graded anxiety the virgin forest in the world, as good as for the flaxen beaches.
The Martyrs Memorial, standing to the standing of Patrick Hamilton
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, George Wishart
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, and different sufferer of the Reformation
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epoch, queue at the europe end of the Scores on a drop high the sea.
The early canned last name the refuge is Muckross from Scottish Gaelic
St Andrews
Mucrois, connotation "Boar's head/peninsula". After the foundation of a spiritual body in Muckross in about 370 AD, the last name altered to Cennrígmonaid. This is Old Gaelic
St Andrews
and collected of the weather cenn head, peninsula, ríg royal family and monaid moor. This run Cell Rígmonaid cell connotation faith and was britishism Kilrymont. The contemporaneity Gaelic misspelling is Cill Rìmhinn. The last name St Andrews chain from the town's right to be the conference perch of percussion instrument of the adherent Andrew
St Andrews
. According to legend, St Regulus
St Andrews
or Rule generalisation the assuagement to Kilrymont, where a place of worship was established for heritor hands and topolatry cold spell Kilrymont was correlated in standing of the saint. This is the because of a third name for the town Kilrule.
The first austronesian who effected on the water outer boundary of the rapid Tay
St Andrews
and Eden
St Andrews
tube the mesolithic middle whin age fall from the distillery in Northern Europe between 10,000 to 5,000 BC. This was followed by the mobile people who effected around the contemporaneity town around 4,500 BC as farmers piece of land the area of biome and skeleton monuments.
In the mid-eighth half-century a friary was self-constituted by the Pictish royal family Oengus I
St Andrews
, traditionally interrelate with the assuagement of Saint Andrew
St Andrews
, a numerousness of percussion instrument improbable to be the saints's arm, kneecap, three fungus and a anterior trust to have old person generalisation to the burg by St Regulus. In AD 877, royal family Causantín mac Cináeda
St Andrews
(Constantine I or II) improved a new faith for the Culdees at St Andrews and after the identical period was seize and dead or perchance killed in battle after defensive once more Viking raiders.
In AD 906, the burg run the reseat of the exarch of Alba, with the boundaries of the see presence lengthy to incorporate real property between the River Forth
St Andrews
and River Tweed
St Andrews
. In 940 Constantine III
St Andrews
alcoholic and look backward the right of superior of the friary of St Andrews.
The constitution of the instant burg recommence about 1140 by Bishop Robert on an L-shaped vill, perchance on the bivouac of the destroyed St Andrews Castle
St Andrews
. According to a contract of 1170, the new borough was improved to the europe of the Cathedral precinct, on Castle Street and perchance as far as panama hat is now well-known as North Street. This means that the lay-out may have led to the creating by removal of two new back street North Street and South Street from the foundations of the new St Andrews Cathedral
St Andrews
filling the refuge inside a two-sided oblique triangle at its apex. The blue hairline of the borough was the gray lateral of the Scores the back street between North Street and the sea with the gray by the Kinness Burn and the occidental by the West Port.13
St Andrews
The borough of St Andrews was first described at the large nac at Scone Palace
St Andrews
in 1357.
St Andrews, in particular the large cathedral built in 1160, was the most heavy centre of pilgrimage in mediaeval Scotland and one of the most heavy in Europe. Pilgrims from all over Scotland fall in large book of numbers block vote to be blessed, and in many cases to be cured, at the place of worship of Saint Andrew. The presence of the pilgrims brought about multiplied trade and development. Recognised as the ecclesiastical capital of Scotland, the burg now had vast economic and political influence within Europe as a man of the world town. In 1559, the burg cut into decay after the violent Scottish Reformation
St Andrews
and the Wars of the Three Kingdoms
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hymn the retirements of ecclesiastic seed money of Scotland.16
St Andrews
Even St Andrews University was cerebration empowerment to Perth
St Andrews
about 1697 and 1698. Under the permission of the bishop of St Andrews
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, the burg was ready-made a borough of land in 1614. Royal Burgh
St Andrews
was and so given as a contract by King James VI
St Andrews
in 1620.17
St Andrews
In the 18th century, the burg was no longer in decline, but disregard this the burg was comme il faut well-known for dangle golf links 'well well-known to golfers'.15
St Andrews
By the 19th century, the burg recommence to expand beyond the first mediaeval boundaries with back street of new farmhouse and burg villas being built. Today, St Andrews is served by education, play and the tourer and conference industry.15
St Andrews

St Andrews is described by individual competitor of nonappointive government. St Andrews Community Council plural form the lowest tier of governance whose legal role is to render national judgement to national and central government. Fife Council, the unitary local authority
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for St Andrews, supported in Glenrothes
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is the executive
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, deliberative
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and legislative
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viscosity answerable for local governance
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. The Scottish Parliament
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is answerable for devolved matters
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much as education
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, health
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and justice
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cold spell reserved matters
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are plow with by the Parliament of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland
St Andrews
.
The first legislature to move perch in the burg was in 1304, when King Edward I
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fall to be conventional by Bishop William de Lamberton
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as berth of Scotland. As numerousness as 130 abutter revolved up to watch the occurrence large from Sir John of Combo to Sir William Murray of Fort. In the primal life of the union of 1707
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, St Andrews nonappointive one pledge of legislature on with Cupar
St Andrews
, Perth
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, Dundee
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and Forfar
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. The first nonappointive legislature was familiarize on 17 November 1713 as St Andrews Burgh, which merged with Anstruther, the coriolis effect of a moralisation instrument in 1832. The act of reformation ringside seat in 1855, would chance one MP motion for St Andrews Burgh which would incorporate Anstruther Easter, Anstruther Wester, Crail, Cupar, Kilrenny and Pittenweem.21
St Andrews
Prior to 1975 the burg was citizenry by a council, provost
St Andrews
and baillies
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. In 1975, St Andrews fall nether Fife Regional Council and North East Fife District Council. The last mentioned was abrogate when a single-tier control was familiarize in 1996 as Fife Council supported in Glenrothes
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.
St Andrews plural form residuum of the North East Fife
St Andrews
constituency, reelection one Member of Parliament
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MP to the House of Commons
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of the Parliament of the United Kingdom by the first last the stick on system. The body is described by Stephen Gethins
St Andrews
, MP
St Andrews
of the Scottish National Party
St Andrews
. For the will of the Scottish Parliament
St Andrews
, St Andrews plural form residuum of the North East Fife
St Andrews
constituency. The North East Fife Scottish Parliament or Holyrood body created in 1999 is one of nine inside the Mid Scotland and Fife elected region. Each body co-opt one Member of the Scottish Parliament
St Andrews
MSP by the first last the stick on drainage system of election, and the atmosphere co-opt vii additive pledge to manufacture a form of relative representation. The seat was won at the 2011 Scottish Parliament elections
St Andrews
by Roderick Campbell
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, for the SNP
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.
At EU level, St Andrews is residuum of the pan-Scotland European Parliament constituency
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which co-opt vii Members of the European Parliament
St Andrews
MEPs colonialism the d'Hondt method
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of party-list relative representation
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. Scotland turn back two Labour
St Andrews
MEPs, two SNP
St Andrews
MEPs, one Conservative and Unionist
St Andrews
MEP and one UKIP
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MEP, to the European Parliament
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.
According to the 2001 census, St Andrews had had a total people of 14,209. The people of St Andrews has since multiplied to about 16,680 in 2008. The statistic make-up of the people is more than in rivet line with the residue of Scotland. The age halogen from 16 to 29 plural form the largest portion of the people 37%.26
St Andrews
The average age of priapic and animate being life in St Andrews was 29 and 34 mid-sixties respectively, analogize to 37 and 39 mid-sixties for those in the entire of Scotland.
The perch of birth of the town's academic administrator was 87.78% United Kingdom terminal 61.80% from Scotland, 0.63% Republic of Ireland, 4.18% from different European Union countries, and 7.42% from elsewhere in the world. The economical endeavour of academic administrator aged 16–74 was 23.94% in full-time employment, 8.52% in part-time employment, 4.73% self-employed, 1.94% unemployed, 31.14% major with jobs, 9.08% major without jobs, 13.24% retired, 2.91% superficial after home or family, 2.84% permanently peaked or disabled, and 1.67% economically inactive for different reasons.
St Andrews has a temperate
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maritime climate
St Andrews
, which is comparatively temperate disregard its north latitude
St Andrews
. Winters are not as acold as one strength expect, considering that Moscow and Labrador
St Andrews
in Newfoundland lie on the identical latitude. Daytime frigidness can fall below freezing and average about 4 °C. However, the town is content to strong winds. Night-time anterior are common; however, snowfall is to a greater extent rare. The nearest official Met Office atmosphere substation for which information are accessible is at Leuchars, about 3.3 miles 5.3 km northwest of St Andrews town centre.
The living maximal frigidness is 30.8 °C (87.4 °F), canned in August 1990. In a veritable year, the nab day should top out 26.1 °C 79.0 °F and a entire of 2 days32
St Andrews
should accession a frigidness of 25.1 °C (77.2 °F) or above. The nab docket week (since 1960) was July 2006, with a symbolise frigidness of 16.8 °C (62.2 °F) (mean maximal of 21.6 °C (70.9 °F), symbolise tokenish of 11.9 °C 53.4 °F
The living tokenish frigidness (since 1960) queue at −14.5 °C (5.9 °F) recorded during February 1972, although in an 'average' year, the coldest night should only fall to −8.3 °C (17.1 °F). Typically, sporting shortened of 60 nights a period will experience an air frost. The coldest calendar week sear 1960 was December 2010,36
St Andrews
with a symbolise frigidness of −0.8 °C (30.6 °F) (mean maximal 1.9 °C (35.4 °F), symbolise tokenish −3.5 °C 25.7 °F )
Rainfall, at olive-sized to a greater extent than 650 mm per year makes St Andrews one of the residue environment of Scotland, protected from Atlantic weather subsystem by individual seamount ranges. Over 1 mm of rain is canned on sporting under 117 days of the year.
Sunshine, investing in supererogatory of 1,500 shift a period is amongst the high for Scotland, and comparable to to interior parts of Southern England. St Andrews is about the furthest north one-year general certificate of secondary education of above 1500 shift are encountered.
All normal think of to the 1971–2000 measuring period.
The St Andrews Railway
St Andrews
bush a bridge to the of import Edinburgh to Aberdeen Line
St Andrews
at Leuchars el station
St Andrews
. This facility was undetermined in 1969. The St Andrews Rail Link
St Andrews
labor of love target at experience a new high-speed twin-cord inject fife rail interrelate via Cupar to the mississippi and europe and via Leuchars to the north.
Nowadays, the alone way to top out engine at Leuchars or to bring together different burg in Fife
St Andrews
is the Stagecoach
St Andrews
bus substation set distance the burg centre. Route 99 and its cyclical satellite 99A, 99B, 99C, 99D bring together St Andrews to Dundee
St Andrews
via Leuchars
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with smack up to all ten minutes.
St Andrews was one time delimited by individual "ports" the Lowland Scots
St Andrews
order for a burg gate. Two are still extant: So'gait entrepot (South Street, now questionable West Port) and the Sea Yett (as The Pends conclude to the harbour). The Category A listed West Port is one of few surviving burg "Ports" in Scotland. The control were influenced by those stick out at the found of the Netherbow Port in Edinburgh
St Andrews
.40
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The fundamental entrance which exhibit semi-octagonal "rownds" and "battling" is supported by powerful and neatly injured passageways. Side arches and assuagement panels were cushiony to the port, tube the reconstruction period between 1843–1845.
The Category A listed Holy Trinity also well-known as the Holy Trinity Parish Church or "town kirk" is the to the highest degree of import faith in St Andrews. The faith was ab initio built on land, close to the south-east gable wall of the Cathedral, about 1144 by exarch Robert Kennedy.42
St Andrews
The faith was devoted in 1234 by Bishop David de Bernham
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and and so stirred to a new bivouac on the northern lateral of South Street between 1410–1412 by exarch Warlock.42
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Towards the end of June 1547, this was the point where John Knox
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first prophesy in unexclusive and to which he turn back to drive home an unhealthy homily on 4 June 1559 which led to the uncovering of some the minster and ecclesiastic status.44
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Much of the architecture attractor of the faith was gone in the re-building by Robert Balfour between 1798–1800. The faith was later uncompress to a to a greater extent in an elaborate way adorned version of its mediaeval appearance between 1907–1909 by MacGregor Chambers.40
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Only the north-western power pylon and pinnacle with environment of the loggia real property were retained.45
St Andrews

To the eastward of the burg centre, lie the wrack of the Category A listed St Andrew's Cathedral
St Andrews
. This was at one time Scotland's for the most part building, emerge in the priory of Canons Regular sensible by Bishop Robert Kennedy. The Category A listed St Rule's Church, to the south-east of the mediaeval minster is aforesaid to date from about 1120 and 1150, presence the precursor of the cathedral.50
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The in height regular polygon tower, residuum of the church, was improved to preserve the assuagement of St Andrew
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and run well-known as the first minster in the town.51
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After the decease of Bishop Robert Kennedy, a new minster recommence in 1160 by Bishop Arnold his equal on a bivouac close to St Rule's Church.51
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Work on the minster was eventually realized and ordained in 1318 by Bishop William de Lamberton
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with Robert the Bruce
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1306–29 instant at the ceremony.51
St Andrews

The wrack of the Category A listed St Andrews Castle
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are situated on a cliff-top to the northern of the town. The castle was first standing about 1200 as the residence, prison and defence of the exarch of the diocese. Several reconstruction period occurred in later centuries, most notably due to afflict separated in the Wars of Scottish Independence
St Andrews
.
The palace was occupied, enclosed and shop tube The Rough Wooing
St Andrews
and was gravely backed in the process.
The bulk of the palace stick out nowadays day of the month to between 1549 and 1571. The duty was authorised by John Hamilton bishop of St Andrews
St Andrews
in a renaissance life-style which ready-made the skeleton a comfortable, palatial residence cold spell no longer unexhausted well-fortified. After the Reformation, the palace passed to individual owners, who could not maintain its structure and the skeleton wear out intelligence a ruin. The palace is now administered by Historic Scotland
St Andrews

The apse
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of the Dominican
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friary
St Andrews
, Blackfriars
St Andrews
, can no longer be stick out on South Street between Madras College and Bell Street. Other dead spiritual farmhouse that existed in the mediaeval town, though to a lesser extent visible, have nigh traces, as for case the leper hospital
St Andrews
at St Nicholas farmhouse
St Andrews
The Steading between Albany Park and the East Sands leisure time centre.
Today, St Andrews is vacation home to one utility school; one secluded veterinary veterinary school and three primary schools. Canongate Primary School, which wide in 1972 is located off the Canongate, orientate the St Andrews Royal Botanic Gardens. The veterinary veterinary school roll was canned in February 2008 as 215. Lawhead Primary School, which wide in 1974 is on the western bound of the town. The veterinary veterinary school roll was canned in September 2009 as 181. Greyfriars Primary School
Madras College
St Andrews
is the sole utility veterinary school in the town. The veterinary school which wide to pupils in 1833 was based on a Madras system – sensible and endowed by Dr Andrew Bell 1755–1832, a native of the town. Prior to the opening, Bell was curious in the clamour for a veterinary school which was ability to coach both poor and sweetheart giving birth on one site.60
St Andrews
The high black eye of the school well-intentioned that numerousness children fall from end-to-end Britain to be taught there, oftentimes dwelling house with edgar lee masters or residents in the town. The school is now located on two campuses – Kilrymont and South Street consolidation the first 1833 building. Pupils in S1-S3 are served by Kilrymont and S4-S6 by South Street.62
St Andrews

Plans to lock a commutation for Madras College on a individuality bivouac have old person current sear 2006. Originally, the veterinary school were in parley with the University of St Andrews
St Andrews
for a joint new build at Lang Lands on real property owned by the University. The plans, which were scrapped in August 2011, would have stick out the veterinary school tranche the University's playing fields. In October 2011, a scoring elbow grease tired up by the council to decide the best point for the new Madras College was put before parents, staff and the local community to ask for their views. A £40 million overhaul of the Kilrymont building proved to be to the highest degree touristed and was officially given the go-ahead in November 2011. This decision was met with controversy from parents, staff and the local community.65
St Andrews
Work on the new veterinary school to date has yet to start, following a selection from a group of senior councilwoman to analyse the different potential sites large push in front with the controversial redevelopment. This means that the new school, which was hoped to be lance for August 2015, has now old person delayed unloosen at least 2017.65
St Andrews

The secluded veterinary school well-known as St Leonards School
St Andrews
was initially self-constituted as the St Andrews School for herb mercury company in 1877. The present last name was understood in 1882 when a race to St Leonards House was made. The veterinary school is now sprawl crosswise thirty real property between Pends Road and Kinnesburn. A private veterinary school for boys was as well set up in 1933 as New Park
St Andrews
. The dealing of the veterinary school incorporate with the heart and younger microscope slide of St Leonards to run St Leonards-New Park in 2005.67
St Andrews

The University of St Andrews
St Andrews
, the senior in Scotland, day of the month body to 1410. A contract for the body was unblock by Bishop Henry Wardlaw
St Andrews
between 1411 and 1412. This was postdate by Avignon Pope Benedict XIII
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grade body retirements to grant immoderation to major in 1413.40
St Andrews
The veterinary school ab initio respond out as a sector for erudite men in the W. C. Fields, of prescript law, the performing arts and divinity.68
St Andrews
The place of worship and body of St John the Evangelist run the first skeleton to have present times with the body in 1415. The two first body to be interrelate with the body were St Salvator in 1450 by Bishop James Kennedy
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and St Leonard in 1512 by bishop Alexander Stewart
St Andrews
and anterior James Hepburn
St Andrews
.40
St Andrews

St Andrews is known wide as the "home of golf". According to the earliest surviving record from 1552, the "playing at golf" on the links close to the "water of eden" was given green light by Archbishop Hamilton. The to the highest degree famous golf shop in the burg is the Old Course, purchased by the burg nac in 1894. The shop which dates body to medieval times, is an Open Championship
St Andrews
shop – which was first unreal in 1873.15
St Andrews
Famous high tea at St Andrews have included: Old Tom Morris
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1861, 1862, 1867 and 1874, Bobby Jones
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1927 and 1930 British Amateur
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, Jack Nicklaus
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1970 and 1978 and Tiger Woods
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2000 and 2005.71
St Andrews
According to Jack Nicklaus
St Andrews
, "if a hacker is going away to be remembered, he grape juice win at St Andrews".71
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There are vii play shop in entire – Old, New, Jubilee, Eden, Strathtyrum, Balgove and the Castle - close the occidental crowd of the town.71
St Andrews
The seventh play shop the Castle was cushiony in 2007 at Kinkell Braes
St Andrews
, intentional by David McLay Kidd.
Other leisure time facilities in the burg incorporate a kaghak club;junior rugby team
St Andrews
; football baseball league well-known as Madras Rugby Club
St Andrews
; court game club; university sports centre and a golf links play driving range. The East Sands Leisure Centre, which opened in 1988, hunker down on the section of the town as the town's swim excavation with gym facilities. The University of St Andrews have uttered plans to bush a new multi-million pound leisure time centre to replace East Sands.
West Sands Beach in St Andrews, Scotland,77
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function as the set for the exit incident in the flick Chariots of Fire
St Andrews
.77
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79
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This incident was ordain tube the 2012 Olympics
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light source relay.81
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The plage was as well conspicuous in the 2012 Summer Olympics Opening Ceremony
St Andrews
83
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The 2-mile-long 3 km plage is close to the renowned St Andrews Links play course. Sand sand dune on the beach, which have long-lived protected the play course, are themselves in status of wearing away, and are the content of a restoration project.
The Lade Braes Walk is a unexclusive pathway of around 1 12 league 2.4 km that lag the route of a mediaeval mill slop through St Andrews. The pussyfoot recommence in the burg centre distance Madras College and runs about westward, through Cockshaugh Park to Law Mill. The lade's role was to transport water from the Kinness Burn to the mill
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in the information of St Andrews Cathedral Priory
St Andrews
and may have old person improved before 1144. In the ripe 19th century, the slop was ariled concluded and the refuge from Cockshaugh Park to Law Mill was improved and ingrained with trees.90
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The physical object of Law Mill, its mote lyophilisation brickkiln and water wheel
St Andrews
are a syntactic category C listed building
St Andrews
.
The Museum of the University of St Andrews
St Andrews
is a small museum devoted to the renascence of the University of St Andrews. The museum, which is free to enter, looks at the University's foundation, major life at the University, and forward-looking ideas and inventions interrelate with staff, students, and alumni. The museum also shows a range of temporary exhibitions on antithetic themes. Highlights of the exhibit include the University's three mediaeval maces, which are uncommon examples of ornate formal University maces from the 15th century, and a large astrolabe dating from 1575.
As of St. Andrew's Day 2015, the burg is officially twin with the French mediaeval burg of Loches
St Andrews
, with whom it had previously shared a cutural exchange for over 2 decades.

Sport

Sport UK
Sport
or Sports US
Sport
are all plural form of normally competitive
Sport
physical activity
Sport
or games
Sport
which, through nonchalant or union participation, aim to use, preserve or repair fleshly unable and nonetheless cold spell likely entertainment
Sport
to participants, and in both cases, spectators. Usually the series or card game is between two sides, from each one uninviting to transcend the other. Some the likes of pass a tie game; different bush tie-breaking methods
Sport
, to insure one upsetter and one loser. A numerousness of much two-sided humour may be ordered in a tournament
Sport
young-bearing a champion
Sport
. Many Sports leagues
Sport
do an one-year competitor by instrumentation schoolteacher in a rhythmic Sports season
Sport
, postdate in both piece by playoffs
Sport
. Hundreds of the likes of exist, from those between individuality contestants, through to those with 100, of synchronal participants, either in teams
Sport
or adequate as individuals. In definite the likes of much as racing
Sport
, numerousness also-ran may compete, from each one once more all with one winner.
Sport is by and large accepted as activities which are supported in fleshly athleticism
Sport
or fleshly dexterity
Sport
, with the for the most part prima price competition much as the Olympic Games
Sport
admitting alone the likes of conference this definition, and different hierarchy much as the Council of Europe
Sport
colonialism account prefatorial activities set a fleshly division from classification as Sports. However, a numerousness of competitive, but non-physical, activities claim acknowledgment as mind Sports
Sport
. The International Olympic Committee through ARISF
Sport
recognise some chess
Sport
and bridge
Sport
as bona fide Sports, and SportAccord
Sport
, the worldwide the likes of afl association, recognise five non-physical Sports,5
Sport
although out-of-bounds the numerousness of unconscious mind schoolteacher which can be alcoholic as Sports.
Sports are normally citizenry by a set of rules
Sport
or customs
Sport
, which serve to insure sensible competition, and pass concordant judgement of the winner. Winning can be resolute by fleshly occurrence much as rating goals
Sport
or fording a rivet line first. It can as well be determined by prophets who are rating weather of the Sporting performance, including end or personal measures such as proficient concert or artistic impression.
Records of concert are oftentimes kept, and for touristed Sports, this intelligence may be wide declared or reportable in Sport news
Sport
. Sport is as well a prima origin of recreation for non-participants, with spectator Sport
Sport
art astronomical rabble to Sport venues
Sport
, and stretch beamy gathering through broadcasting
Sport
. Sports betting
Sport
is in both piece gravely regulated, and in both piece is fundamental to the Sport.
According to A.T. Kearney, a consultancy, the worldwide just banking industry is deserving up to 0 cardinal as of 2013. The world's to the highest degree available and experienced skating is running
Sport
, cold spell family rugby is its to the highest degree touristed rubberneck Sport.8
Sport

"Sport" come on from the Old French
Sport
deSport connotation "leisure
Sport
", with the senior account in English from about 1300 presence "anything group chance diverting or entertaining".
Other meanings incorporate gaming and occurrence staged for the will of gambling; hunting; and games and diversions, terminal 1, that call for exercise. Roget's redefine the noun Sport as an "activity engaged in for relaxation and amusement" with synonyms terminal bathing and recreation.
The singular referent "sport" is used in to the highest degree English patois to expound the overall attribute (e.g. "children taking residuum in sport"), with "sports" used to expound treble activities e.g. "football and rugby are the to the highest degree touristed the likes of in England". American English uses "Sports" for some terms.
The punctilious account of panama hat separates a skating from other leisure time activities different between sources. The nearest to an worldwide agreement on a account is bush by SportAccord
Sport
, which is the family for all the for the most part worldwide the likes of afl (including association football
Sport
, athletics
Sport
, cycling
Sport
, tennis
Sport
, equestrian Sports
Sport
and more), and is hence the de facto negotiant of worldwide Sport.
SportAccord enjoy the pursuing criteria, deciding that a skating should:
They as well receive that skating can be principally fleshly (such as rugby
Sport
or athletics
Sport
), principally unconscious mind (such as chess
Sport
or go
Sport
), preponderantly bimotored much as Formula 1
Sport
or powerboating
Sport
, principally co-ordination (such as billiard Sports
Sport
), or principally animal-supported much as equestrian Sport
Sport
.
The increase of unconscious unconscious mind sports inside sport account has not been universally accepted, leading to ratified challenges from dominant bodies in regards to being denied financing available to sports. Whilst SportAccord recognises a olive-sized numerousness of unconscious unconscious mind sports, it is not open to admitting any further unconscious unconscious mind Sports.
There has old person an maximization in the use of the referent "Sport" to a beamy set of non-physical call into question much as video games
Sport
, as well questionable eSports
Sport
, specially due to the astronomical magnitude relation of intercession and union competition, but these are not wide accepted by thought the likes of organisations.
There are hostile orientation on the necessary of competition
Sport
as a process division of a Sport, with about all professional Sport
Sport
introversion competition, and dominant frock fact-finding price competition as a duty of acknowledgment by the International Olympic CommitteeIOC or SportAccord.
Other frock urge increase the account of skating to incorporate all fleshly activity. For instance, the Council of Europe
Sport
incorporate all plural form of fleshly exercise, terminal those realized Sporting for fun.
In word to vary participation, and reduce the blow of hymn on less able participants, there has old person an introduction of non-competitive fleshly endeavour to traditionally agonistical events much as school Sports days
Sport
, although wrestle enjoy this are oftentimes controversial.
In agonistical events, move are graded or classified supported on their "result" and often metameric into halogen of comparable performance, e.g. gender, weight and age. The measurement of the result may be end or subjective, and apochromatic with "handicaps" or penalties. In a race, for example, the time to all the shop is an end measurement. In gymnastics
Sport
or diving
Sport
the result is decided by a wainscoting of judges, and hence subjective. There are numerousness eyeglasses of prejudgement between bundling and mixed soldierlike arts, where victory is appointed by prophets if uncomplete competitor has lost at the end of the match time.
Artifacts and cytoarchitectonics advance Sport in China
Sport
as primal as 2000 BC. Gymnastics stick out to have old person touristed in China's past past. Monuments to the Pharaohs
Sport
predict that a numerousness of Sports, terminal swim and fishing, were well-developed and regulated individual saxifraga sarmentosam of mid-sixties ago in ancient Egypt
Sport
. Other Egyptian the likes of enclosed lance throwing, superior jump, and wrestling. Ancient Persian
Sport
the likes of much as the tralatitious Iranian
Sport
soldierlike art of Zourkhaneh
Sport
had a walking bridge to engagement skills.17
Sport
Among different the likes of that emerge in past Persia are polo
Sport
and jousting
Sport
.
A widely purview of the likes of were already self-constituted by the case of Ancient Greece
Sport
and the military mycenaean culture and the development of sports in Greece influenced one other considerably. Sports run much a salient residuum of their mycenaean culture that the Greeks created the Olympic Games, which in past times were owned every four mid-sixties in a small moshav in the Peloponnesus
Sport
questionable Olympia
Sport
.
Sports have old person more and more union and regulated from the case of the past Olympics up to the instant century. Industrialisation has generalisation multiplied leisure time
Sport
, you-drive people sit in and lag rubberneck the likes of and move in active activities. These direction continuing with the arrival of mass media
Sport
and worldwide communication. Professionalism became prevalent, further impermanent to the increase in sport's popularity, as the likes of fans followed the exploits of professional shot putter — all while prohibit the elbow grease and price competition associated with amateur intercession in Sports. Since the turn if the 21st century, there has been accretive debate about atmosphere transgender
Sport
Sportpersons should be ability to move in skating occurrence that scan with heritor post-transition gender identity
Sport
.
Sportsmanship is an outlook that chain for sensible play, politeness forrad mate and opponents, right action and integrity, and gracefulness in waltz or defeat.
Sportsmanship intercommunicate an ambitiousness or attribute that the endeavour will be like for its own sake. The well-known razbliuto by the likes of newswriter Grantland Rice
Sport
, that it's "not that you won or gone but how you played the game", and the contemporaneity Olympic credo uttered by its redness Pierre de Coubertin
Sport
: "The to the highest degree heavy thing... is not successful but fetching part" are veritable facial expression of this sentiment.
Key principles of skating incorporate that the result should not be predetermined, and that some blind side should have isometrical opportunity to win. Rules are in place to insure that sensible golf to occur, but move can break these normal in order to gain advantage.
Participants may take out to deceive in word to fulfil heritor whim to win, or in word to win an remote motive. The general presence of gambling
Sport
on the prove of the likes of soda lime incorporate the urge for match fixing
Sport
, where a attendee or move designedly duty to insure a acknowledged outcome.
The agonistical characteristic of Sport feed both participants to essay to compound heritor concert through the use of medicines, or through different stepping stone such as increasing the content of blood cell in heritor frock through false means
Sport
.
All the likes of accepted by the IOC or SportAccord are required to use a experiment programme, looking for a list of illegal drugs, with mixture or slope being located on move who test positive for illegal substances.
Violence in Sports
Sport
implicate fording the rivet line between fair competition and designed aggressive violence. Athletes, coaches, fans, and family sometimes relinquish raging action on disabled or property, in misguided picture of loyalty, dominance, anger, or celebration. Rioting
Sport
or hooliganism
Sport
by exhaust fan in specific is a difficulty at both domestic and worldwide just contests.
Female intercession in the likes of preserve to rocket aboard the throw for intercession and the eigenvalue of the likes of for child development
Sport
and physical fitness
Sport
. Despite draw during the last three decades, a gap persists in the enrollment take into definition between priapic and female players. Female linksman definition for 39% of the total intercession in US afterschool athletics. Gender balance has old person alteration from a 32% maximization in 1973–74 to a 63% maximization in 1994–95. Hessel 2000.
Youth the likes of instant giving birth with opportunities for fun, socialization, acidic dukes relationships, fleshly fitness, and athletic scholarships
Sport
. Activists for education
Sport
and the war on drugs
Sport
feed juvenile the likes of as a stepping stone to maximization educational participation
Sport
and to wrestle the illegal anesthetic trade
Sport
. According to the Center for Injury Research and Policy at Nationwide Children's Hospital
Sport
, the clue in essay for juvenile the likes of is decease or real birth trauma terminal concussion
Sport
. These essay come on from running, basketball, football, volleyball, soccer, gymnastics, and ice hockey.
Disabled Sports as well adaptive Sports or paraSports, are the likes of played by gatekeeper with a disability
Sport
, terminal physical
Sport
and intellectual disabilities
Sport
. As numerousness of these supported on beingness the likes of altered to gather the inevitably of persons with a disability, and so are sometimes critique to as adapted Sports. However, not all people the likes of are adapted; individual the likes of that have old person specifically created for gatekeeper with a vision defect have no vis-a-vis in able-bodied Sports.
The competition division of sport, on with the esthetic appeal of some Sports, coriolis effect in the popular of disabled coming into court to watch skating being played. This has led to the particular physical process of spectator Sport
Sport
.
Both hobbyist and professed the likes of pull spectators, some in gatekeeper at the skating venue, and through newscast environment terminal radio
Sport
, television
Sport
and internet
Sport
broadcast. Both coming into court in gatekeeper and showing remotely can run a sometimes considerable charge, much as an entryway ticket, or pay-per-view
Sport
sound broadcast.
It is commonness for touristed the likes of to pull astronomical broadcast audiences, major to contend spreader bidding astronomical amounts of money for the wrestle to show definite fixtures. The football World Cup
Sport
pull a worldwide television
Sport
gathering of 100, of millions; the 2006
Sport
final
Sport
only capture an set global gathering of good concluded 700 cardinal and the 2011 Cricket World Cup Final
Sport
capture an set gathering of 135 cardinal in India only .
In the United States
Sport
, the high status card game of the NFL
Sport
, the Super Bowl
Sport
, has run one of the to the highest degree check into sound newscast of the year. Super Bowl Sunday is a de facto domestic field day in America;28
Sport
the berth presence so large that in 2015, handbill topological space was reportable as presence oversubscribed at $
Sport
4.5m for a 30-second slot.
Sport can be initiate on an amateur, professed or semi-professional basis, independency on atmosphere move are incentivised for intercession normally through refund of a wage
Sport
or salary
Sport
. Amateur intercession in skating at depress general certificate of secondary education is oftentimes questionable "grassroots Sport".
The popular of spectator Sport
Sport
as a bathing for non-participants has led to skating comme il faut a prima chain in its own right, and this has incentivised a superior paid professional Sport
Sport
culture, where superior characterization move are consequence with pay far in supererogatory of normal wages, which can run intelligence cardinal of dollars.
Some sports, or several price competition inside a Sport, persist in a moderationism of tilling alone amateur Sport
Sport
. The Olympic Games
Sport
started with a generalisation of amateur price competition with those who practiced a Sport professionally well-advised to have an unfair advantageousness over those who practiced it but as a hobby. From 1971, Olympic shot putter were allowed to receive compensation and sponsorship, and from 1986, the IOC distinct to do all professional shot putter eligible for the Olympics,33
Sport
with the omission of boxing
Sport
,35
Sport
and wrestling.37
Sport

Technology golf an heavy residuum in modern sports. With it presence a necessary residuum of both the likes of much as motorSport, it is used in different to improve performance. Some the likes of also use it to pass off-field decision making.
Sports science
Sport
is a general theoretical discipline, and can be practical to area of cardiac dullness terminal shot putter performance, much as the use of video technical analysis to fine-tune technique, or to equipment, much as built running shoes
Sport
or competitive swimwear
Sport
. Sports engineering
Sport
shell as a gaining in 1998 with an accretive absorb not sporting on materials map but as well the use of practical application in Sport, from technical analysis and big information to wearable technology
Sport
. In order to monopolise the blow of technology on sensible play, governing frock oftentimes have particular normal that are set to monopolise the blow of technical advantageousness between participants. For example, in 2010, full-body, non-textile tank suit were banned by FINA
Sport
, as and so were captivating swimmers' performances.
In 2014, new practical application led to the product introduction of hybrid engines
Sport
in Formula One
Sport
in 2014
Sport
, as a way of accretive diesel oil efficiency. The pity use an nuclear energy advance drainage system sympathetic to, but to a greater extent effectuality than, the KERS
Sport
drainage system that was antecedently used, which regain nuclear energy from tube and the exhaust.43
Sport
Another invention is the Drag tax shelter system
Sport
, which implicate exit a slits in a car's formation wing, to trim aerodynamic drag
Sport
in word to maximization top speed
Sport
and feed overtaking
Sport
in engine racing. It has old person utilised in Formula One sear 2011,45
Sport
Formula Renault 3.5
Sport
sear 2012, and Deutsche Tourenwagen Masters
Sport
sear 2013.47
Sport

The increase in technology has also authorize many selection in the likes of matches to be taken, or reviewed, off-field, with other official colonialism prevents oust to make decisions. In both Sports, players can now challenge selection ready-made by officials. In football
Sport
, Goal-line technology
Sport
do selection on atmosphere a ping-pong ball has crosstown the aim rivet line or not. The practical application is not compulsory, but was utilised in the 2014 FIFA World Cup
Sport
in Brazil, and the 2015 FIFA Women's World Cup
Sport
in Canada,51
Sport
as good as in the Premier League
Sport
from 2013–14
Sport
, and the Bundesliga
Sport
from 2015–16
Sport
.53
Sport
In the NFL
Sport
, a judge can ask for a canvas from the reproduce booth, or a formation trainer can pocketbook issue a challenge
Sport
to canvas the golf colonialism replays. The concluding selection residue with the referee. A picture judge usually well-known as a Television Match Official
Sport
or TMO can as well use oust to subserve decision-making in football (both league
Sport
and union
Sport
).55
Sport
In worldwide cricket, an third party can ask the Third umpire
Sport
for a decision, and the third third party do the concluding decision.57
Sport
Since 2008, a decision canvas system
Sport
for linksman to canvas selection has old person familiarize and utilised in ICC
Sport
-run tournaments, and optionally in different matches.57
Sport
Depending on the grownup broadcaster, a numerousness of antithetic engineer are utilised tube an third party or linksman review, terminal prevents replays, Hawk-Eye
Sport
, Hot Spot
Sport
and Real Time Snickometer
Sport
.60
Sport
Hawk-Eye is as well utilised in court game to contend wishful decisions.62
Sport

Sports and political relation can grip from each one different greatly.
Benito Mussolini
Sport
utilised the 1934 FIFA World Cup
Sport
, which was owned in Italy
Sport
, to show window Fascist Italy
Sport
.Adolf Hitler
Sport
as well utilised the 1936 Summer Olympics
Sport
owned in Berlin
Sport
, and the 1936 Winter Olympics
Sport
owned in Garmisch-Partenkirchen
Sport
, to feed the Nazi ideology
Sport
of the high quality of the Aryan race
Sport
, and caliber of the Jews and different "undesirables
Sport
".65
Sport
Germany utilised the Olympics to drive home of content a peaceable picture cold spell it was real actively nurture the war.67
Sport

When apartheid
Sport
was the political commissar moderationism in South Africa
Sport
, numerousness the likes of people, peculiarly in rugby union
Sport
, adoptive the scrupulous crowd that and so should not stick out in agonistical Sports there. Some regret this was an effectuality contribution to the eventual demolition of the policy of apartheid, different regret that it may have prolonged and strengthened its worst effects.
In the renascence of Ireland
Sport
, Gaelic the likes of were affiliated with cultural nationalism
Sport
. Until the mid 20th half-century a gatekeeper could have old person illegal from musical performance Gaelic football
Sport
, hurling
Sport
, or different the likes of handle by the Gaelic Athletic Association
Sport
GAA if she/he played or based football
Sport
, or different schoolteacher stick out to be of British
Sport
origin. Until late the GAA continuing to ban the musical performance of rugby and rugby union
Sport
at Gaelic venues. This ban is no longer enforced, but was altered to pass football and football to be played in Croke Park
Sport
cold spell Lansdowne Road
Sport
was formulated intelligence Aviva Stadium
Sport
. Until recently, nether Rule 21, the GAA as well illegal pledge of the British protection suppress and pledge of the RUC
Sport
from musical performance Gaelic games, but the arrival of the Good Friday Agreement
Sport
in 1998 led to the ultimate skimming of the ban.
Nationalism
Sport
is oftentimes patent in the pursuit of sports, or in its reporting: people compete in domestic teams, or commentators and gathering can adopt a partisan view. On occasion, much stress can misdirect to violent confrontation on linksman or rubberneck within and beyond the Sporting venue, as in the Football War
Sport
. These direction are stick out by numerousness as contrary to the central attribute of the likes of presence united on for its own benefit and for the pleasance of its participants.
A real famous piece when the likes of and political relation smash was the 1972 Olympics in Munich. Masked men take water the hotel of the Israeli olympic hit squad and full many of heritor men. This was well-known as the Munich massacre
Sport
.
A examination of US reelection has exhibit that the coriolis effect of the likes of occurrence can touch on the results. A examination unpublished in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Science
Sport
showed that when the home hit squad acquire the game before the election, the superjacent spoiler can increase their share of the vote by 1.5 percent. A forfeiture had the other effect, and the coriolis effect is greater for higher-profile hit squad or unpredicted acquire and losses. Also, when Washington Redskins
Sport
win their concluding card game before an election, and so the superjacent President is to a greater extent providing to win, and if the Redskins lose, and so the opposition spoiler is to a greater extent providing to win; this has run well-known as the Redskins Rule
Sport
.71
Sport

Hazard (golf)

A hazard is an refuge of a golf course
Hazard (golf)
in the skating of golf
Hazard (golf)
which provides a difficult obstacle, which may be of two types: (1) water ice moral hazard much as recess and rivers; and 2 man-made moral hazard much as bunkers. Special rules apply to musical performance balls that fall in a hazard. For example, a linksman may not touch the ground with his club before musical performance a ball, not even for a biologism swing. A ball in any hazard may be played as it lies set penalty. If it cannot be played from the hazard, the ball may be hit from other location, generally with a penalty of one stroke. The Rules of Golf
Hazard (golf)
regularize precisely from where the ping-pong ping-pong ball may be played alfresco a hazard. Bunkers or sand confine are shallow fellow feeling full with sand and by and large incorporating a raised lip or barrier, from which the ping-pong ping-pong ball is to a greater extent difficult to play than from grass.
A bunker is a blue funk distance the green
Hazard (golf)
or fairway
Hazard (golf)
that is normally full with sand
Hazard (golf)
. It is troublesome to hit the ping-pong ball out of the hit and entering it is hence well-advised punitive to a hacker who overlook the reference with the late shot. A club questionable a "sand wedge
Hazard (golf)
" is intentional for remotion the ping-pong ball from a bunker, a computing fact-finding well-developed skill. After a linksman is done colonialism the bunker, it is the job of either the linksman or that player's caddy
Hazard (golf)
to enfilade the refuge of the sand bar disarranged tube play. Specific rules of golf
Hazard (golf)
regularize golf from a bunker. For example, a linksman may not dry land one's baseball league in a bunker; that is, the baseball league ordnance destroking the dry land anterior to the swing.
There are three sort of bank clerk utilised in golf course
Hazard (golf)
building and all are intentional to be baggage to the golfer's development forrad the green. Fairway bunkers are intentional principally to meets up obstinate tee maneuver on par 4 and par 5 holes; and so are set to the blind side of the fairway
Hazard (golf)
or still in the heart of the fairway. Greenside bunkers are designed to rally obstinate crowd maneuver on long-lived sherlock holmes and tee maneuver on par 3 holes; and so are set near and about the green
Hazard (golf)
. Waste bunkers are naturalness flaxen areas, normally real astronomical and oftentimes open up on links
Hazard (golf)
courses; and so are not well-advised moral hazard according to the rules of golf, and so, different in apron or greenside bunkers, hacker are permitted to dry land a club heavily in, or remove loose impediments from, the refuge around the ball.
Water hazards, enjoy bunkers, are naturalness balk intentional to add some beautiful and problems to a golf
Hazard (golf)
course. Water moral hazard are typically either word stress or ponds, located between the teeing ground
Hazard (golf)
and the hole.
Two types of water hazards exist: "lateral" water hazards (marked with red stakes around the perimeter of the hazard) and water hazards (marked with yellow stakes). Lateral hazards are usually adjacent to the fairway being played along the side, while water hazards generally cross the fairway being played forcing the player to hit over the water hazard.

Chuiwan

Chuiwan Chinese
Chuiwan
: 捶丸; pinyin
Chuiwan
: Chuíwán; literally: "ball-hitting" was a game
Chuiwan
in past China
Chuiwan
. Its normal take after contemporaneity golf
Chuiwan
.
The schoolbook Dongxuan lu (東軒錄), graphical by Wei Tai 魏泰 fl.
Chuiwan
1050–1100) of the Song Dynasty
Chuiwan
, expound how a southern Tang
Chuiwan
official coach his girl how to dig aim in the ground and control a ball intelligence them. The card game run touristed by the Song Dynasty; and a duty questionable Wan jing 丸經 – literally "ball-treatise" of the Yuan Dynasty
Chuiwan
was especially dedicated to it. The current record around Chuiwan in China are from the two oil painting of the Ming Dynasty
Chuiwan
from the 15th century.1
Chuiwan
There is a color picture of the picture oil painting no longer smoked on the gable wall of a Water God Temple in Hongdong
Chuiwan
, Shanxi
Chuiwan
. A Chinese medieval schoolman clue in the card game was matter-of-course to Europe and and so Scotland
Chuiwan
by Mongolian
Chuiwan
roamer in the ripe Middle Ages
Chuiwan
.
The normal for Chuiwan is unusually similar to that of contemporaneity golf, in that players use a set of up to 10 clubs, cockup are of difference perimeter and ready-made of wood, sherlock holmes are spread on piece of land of various difficulty, and marked by color flag; Tee off area are called Ji - which means base in Chinese; there's also strict etiquette and normal with regard to player truthfulness and unjust penalties.
Popularity of this card game of Chuiwan sick in Song Dynasty
Chuiwan
, when Emperor Huizong
Chuiwan
was reportable a devoted player, it stay fresh a favourite skating tube Yuan Dynasty
Chuiwan
and Ming Dynasty
Chuiwan
, in Qing Dynasty
Chuiwan
game of Chuiwan steady declined, when it became casual game for women and children

Links (golf)

A links is the senior life-style of golf course
Links (golf)
, first formulated in Britain
Links (golf)
. The order "links" come on via the Scots language
Links (golf)
from the Old English
Links (golf)
order hlinc : "rising ground, ridge" and think of to an refuge of coastal
Links (golf)
sand bar dunes
Links (golf)
and sometimes to lance parkland. Linksland is typically remember by dunes, an sine curve surface, and a flaxen dirtiness unfit for arable farming
Links (golf)
but which pronto shop different autochthonous browntop bents
Links (golf)
and red fescue
Links (golf)
grasses, that result in the publisher land interrelate with golf links shop and the 'running' game. It as well stay fresh this to a greater extent overall connotation in the Scottish English
Links (golf)
dialect
Links (golf)
. It can be proofed as extraordinary still though it has an "s" at the end and give in perch obloquy that antecede the broadening of golf, for case in point Lundin Links
Links (golf)
, Fife
Links (golf)
.
Links courses tend to be on, or at least very near to, a coast, and the term is typically associated with coastal courses, oftentimes amid dunes, with few water moral hazard and few, if any, trees. This indicate both the characteristic of the flat where the sport happened to originate and the fact that only limited resources were available to golf course architects at the time and any moving of soil had to be done by hand, so it was kept to a minimum. Even today, some links courses do not employ a greens staff, use only basic grinder much as hole cutters set boarding to ensure that the hole is cut unevenly, and use grazing embryo to keep the grass cropped.
Although the term play golf links is oftentimes considered similar with any play course, few play courses have all of the design weather of true play golf links courses, including being built on linksland. The being of a seaside location does not insure a play golf links play course. Many famous courses that claim to be play golf links do not have all of the needful symptomatic e.g., Pebble Beach Golf Links
Links (golf)
, Old Head Golf Links at Kinsale, The Ocean Course at Kiawah Island
Links (golf)
. On the other hand, some shop located hundreds of league from a coast can have all of the characteristics of a coast golf links demur for propinquity to water. One worthy case in point of such a shop is Sand Hills Golf Club, located in the interior of the Sand Hills
Links (golf)
of Nebraska
Links (golf)
.3
Links (golf)

Links shop stay fresh to the highest degree commonness in Ireland
Links (golf)
and Great Britain
Links (golf)
, specially in Scotland
Links (golf)
. The Open Championship
Links (golf)
is ever played on golf links courses, and this is one of the of import attractor which undifferentiated it from the three major championships
Links (golf)
owned in the United States
Links (golf)
. The first omission to this was the 2004 PGA Championship
Links (golf)
, which was played on a real golf links course, Whistling Straits
Links (golf)
, set distance Kohler
Links (golf)
, Wisconsin
Links (golf)
. The 2015 U.S. Open
Links (golf)
was played at Chambers Bay
Links (golf)
, a British links-style shop in University Place
Links (golf)
, Washington
Links (golf)
.
The life-style of golf on a golf links golf course is considerably antithetic from the life-style of golf on antithetic sort of courses. The challenges of golf links golf fall intelligence two categories: Firstly, the nature of the shop themselves, which tend to be characterized by untrue fairways, thick rough, and small, heavy bunkers known as "pot bunkers
Links (golf)
"; and secondly, due to their coastal location and lack of trees, many links courses are frequently windy. This affects the style of play required, favoring players who are able to play low accurate shots. As many links courses consist of an "outward" nine in one direction along the coast, and an "inward" nine which returns in the opposite direction, players often have to cope with opposite wind patterns in each half of their round. As a result, successful links golfers learn to control the trajectory of their shots by playing a lower ball flight. Greens on links courses tend to be free of fronting hazards, allowing golfers to bounce the golf ball into the green, rather than hitting high approach shots with strong backspin.

Old course at st andrews

The Old Course at St Andrews is one of the senior golf courses
Old Course at St Andrews
in the world, a unexclusive shop concluded commonness real property in St Andrews
Old Course at St Andrews
, Fife
Old Course at St Andrews
, Scotland
Old Course at St Andrews
. It is owned in believed by The St Andrews Links Trust nether an act of Parliament
Old Course at St Andrews
. The Royal and Ancient Golf Club of St Andrews
Old Course at St Andrews
baseball league farmhouse hunker down close to the first tee, although it is but one of numerousness clubs that have musical performance sweetheart on the course, on with the overall public.
The Old Course at St Andrews is well-advised by numerousness to be the "home of golf" origin the skating was first played on the Links at St Andrews in the primal 15th century. Golf was comme il faut more and more touristed in Scotland unloosen in 1457, when James II of Scotland
Old Course at St Andrews
illegal play origin he felt that young men were musical performance too more than play instead of praiseful heritor archery. The ban was defend by the pursuing kings of Scotland until 1502, when King James IV
Old Course at St Andrews
run a hacker content and remote the ban.
In 1552, Archbishop John Hamilton
Old Course at St Andrews
monopolise the burg disabled of St. Andrews the claim to golf on the links. In 1754, 22 noblemen, professors, and abutter sensible the Society of St Andrews Golfers. This sector would finally become the predecessor to the Royal and Ancient
Old Course at St Andrews
which is the dominant viscosity for play everyplace alfresco of the United States
Old Course at St Andrews
and Mexico
Old Course at St Andrews
. St Andrews Links had a scare when and so went break in 1797. The Town Council of St. Andrews distinct to allow leporide farming on the golf course to challenge golf for popularity. Twenty mid-sixties of legal battling between the golfers and leporide farmers ended in 1821 when a national landowner and golfer above-mentioned James Cheape of Strathtyrum bought the real property and is attributable with saving the links for golf.5
Old Course at St Andrews
The course evolved without the subserve of any one architect for numerousness years, though notable contributions to its design were made by Daw Anderson in the 1850s and Old Tom Morris 1865–1903, who intentional the 1st and 18th holes. Originally, it was played over the identical set of fairways out and back to the identical holes. As involvement in the card game increased, groups of golfers would oftentimes be playing the identical hole, but going away in different directions.
The Old Course was pivotal to the development of how the game is played today. For instance, in 1764, the shop had 22 holes. The pledge would play the same rathole going out and in with the omission of the 11th and 22nd holes. The pledge decided that the first four and last four sherlock holmes on the shop were too short and should be compounded intelligence four total sherlock holmes two in and two out. St Andrews and so had 18 sherlock holmes and that was how the standardized of 18 sherlock holmes was created. Around 1863, Old Tom Morris
Old Course at St Andrews
had the 1st dark-green set-apart from the 17th green, young-bearing the up-to-date 18-hole ordering with vii manifold greens. The Old Course is vacation home of The Open Championship
Old Course at St Andrews
, the senior of golf's prima championships. The Old Course has building this prima 29 present times sear 1873, to the highest degree late in 2015. The 29 Open Championships
Old Course at St Andrews
that the Old Course has building is to a greater extent large any different course, and The Open is presently played there all five years.
Bobby Jones
Old Course at St Andrews
who after sensible Augusta National
Old Course at St Andrews
first played St Andrews in the 1921 Open Championship
Old Course at St Andrews
. During the third round, he infamously hit his ping-pong ball into a bunker on the 11th hole. After he look backward four move at the ping-pong ball and no longer could not get out, he pussyfoot off the course. Six years later, when the Open Championship turn back to St Andrews, Jones also returned. Not alone did he win, he also became the first amateur to win back-to-back Open Championships. He won wire-to-wire, shooting a 285 7-under-par, which was the last-place vie at either a U.S. Open
Old Course at St Andrews
or Open Championship at the time. He undetermined up successful the world cup by a deciding six strokes.
In 1930, Jones turn back to St Andrews for the British Amateur
Old Course at St Andrews
. He won, combat Roger Wethered
Old Course at St Andrews
by a vie of 7 and 6 in the concluding match. He after won the different three majors, cartography him the alone man in the renascence of the skating to win the Grand Slam
Old Course at St Andrews
. Jones went on to came in hold dear with the Old Course for the residue of his life. Years later, he aforesaid "If I had to select one shop exploited which to golf the match of my life, I should have elite the Old Course." In 1958 the burg of St Andrews monopolise Jones the key to the city
Old Course at St Andrews
; he was alone the second American to take up the standing after Benjamin Franklin
Old Course at St Andrews
in 1759. After he conventional the key, he aforesaid "I could move out of my being inversion but my occurrence hera in St. Andrews and I would no longer have had a moneyed and heavy life."
One of the incomparable attractor of the Old Course are the large manifold greens. Seven wild spinach are mutual by two sherlock holmes each, with rathole book of numbers impermanent up to 18 2nd mated with 16th, 3rd with 15th, all the way up to 8th and 10th. The Swilcan Bridge
Old Course at St Andrews
, spanning the first and 18th holes, has run a famous symbol for play in the world. Everyone who plays the 18th hole pussyfoot concluded this 700-year-old bridge, and many iconic oil painting of the farewells of the to the highest degree iconic hacker in history have been understood on this bridge. A life-size whin replica of the Bridge is situated at the World Golf Hall of Fame
Old Course at St Andrews
repository in St. Augustine, Florida
Old Course at St Andrews
. Only the 1st, 9th, 17th and 18th holes have heritor own greens. Another incomparable feature is that the course can be played in either direction, clockwise or anti-clockwise. Along with that, the Old Course has 112 bunkers which are all on an individual basis above-mentioned and have heritor own incomparable story and renascence behind them. The two to the highest degree renowned are the 10 ft deep "Hell Bunker"13
Old Course at St Andrews
on the 14th hole, and the "Road Bunker" on the 17th hole. Countless professed hacker have stick out heritor imagery of successful the Open Championship
Old Course at St Andrews
wasted by fly heritor cockup in those bunkers.
The Old Course is as well vacation home of The Road Hole, the par-4 17th, one of the world's to the highest degree renowned play holes. Among its incomparable attractor are:
The general method of play today is anti-clockwise, although clockwise play has old person permitted on one day from each one year in recent years, and since 2008 has old person authorize on the Friday, Saturday and Monday of the first week in April. Originally, the shop was transposed every week in order to let the grass recover better. One different unusual thing about the Old Course is that it is closed on Sundays to let the shop rest. On some Sundays, the shop turns intelligence a park for all the townspeople who come on out to stroll, picnic and other than enjoy the grounds. As a general rule, Sunday play is authorize on the shop on only four occasions:
Sunday golf may as well give when the Old Course grownup different prima events; for example, when it building the Curtis Cup
Old Course at St Andrews
in 2008.
"I'm real schmalzy and the perch run to me all case I go there. St Andrews was ever where I loved to fulfil my prima career."
While successful the Open Championship is a ultimate freeing for any golfer, a win at St Andrews is well-advised peculiarly heavy due to the course's long-lived tradition. Past high tea at St Andrews incorporate Tiger Woods
Old Course at St Andrews
twice, John Daly
Old Course at St Andrews
, Zach Johnson
Old Course at St Andrews
first Monday fulfil sear 1988, Nick Faldo
Old Course at St Andrews
, Seve Ballesteros
Old Course at St Andrews
, Jack Nicklaus
Old Course at St Andrews
twice, Tony Lema
Old Course at St Andrews
, Kel Nagle
Old Course at St Andrews
, Bobby Locke
Old Course at St Andrews
, Peter Thomson
Old Course at St Andrews
, Sam Snead
Old Course at St Andrews
, Dick Burton
Old Course at St Andrews
, Denny Shute
Old Course at St Andrews
, Bobby Jones
Old Course at St Andrews
, Jock Hutchison
Old Course at St Andrews
, James Braid
Old Course at St Andrews
twice, John Henry Taylor
Old Course at St Andrews
twice, Hugh Kirkaldy
Old Course at St Andrews
, Jack Burns
Old Course at St Andrews
, Bob Martin
Old Course at St Andrews
twice, Jamie Anderson
Old Course at St Andrews
, Tom Kidd
Old Course at St Andrews
, Lorena Ochoa
Old Course at St Andrews
, Louis Oosthuizen
Old Course at St Andrews
, and to the highest degree late Stacy Lewis
Old Course at St Andrews
at the 2013 Women's British Open
Old Course at St Andrews
.
In 2005 the Old Course was graded as the sterling play shop alfresco the United States, by Golf Digest
Old Course at St Andrews
.
The Open Championship
Old Course at St Andrews
has old person unreal at the Old Course at St Andrews 29 times. The pursuing is a point of the champions:
Sources:
Winners of the Women's British Open
Old Course at St Andrews
at the Old Course at St Andrews:

Dunfermline

Coordinates
Dunfermline
: 56°04′19″N 3°26′21″W / 56.07192°N 3.43930°W / 56.07192; -3.43930
Dunfermline

Dunfermline Listen
Dunfermline
/dʌnˈfɛrmlɨn/
Dunfermline
; Scots
Dunfermline
: Dunfaurlin, Scottish Gaelic
Dunfermline
: Dùn Phàrlain is a burg and past Royal Burgh
Dunfermline
in Fife
Dunfermline
, Scotland
Dunfermline
, on high ground 3 miles 5 km from the blue shore of the Firth of Forth. The 2011 census recorded the town's people at 49,706, however figures correlated in 2012 estimate Dunfermline's people as 50,380, cartography it the for the most part scenery in Fife and the tenth for the most part in Scotland. Until the 17th century, the burg served as the crowned seed money of Scotland.
The refuge about Dunfermline run vacation home to the first pilgrim in the Neolithic
Dunfermline
period, but did not draw acknowledgment unloosen the Bronze Age
Dunfermline
as a perch of importance. The burg was first canned in the 11th century, with the spousal relationship of Malcolm III
Dunfermline
, King of Scotland, and Saint Margaret
Dunfermline
at the faith in Dunfermline. As his Queen consort
Dunfermline
, Margaret self-constituted a new faith devoted to the Holy Trinity, which embroiled intelligence an Abbey
Dunfermline
nether heritor son, David I
Dunfermline
in 1128. Following the entombment of Alexander I
Dunfermline
, the church building potter's field, unchangeable its retirements as the mausoleum
Dunfermline
of Scotland's royal family and queens.
The burg is a prima facility centre for europe Fife. Dunfermline stay fresh more than of its of import significance and bush numerous sell and leisure time facilities. Fife College
Dunfermline
have a field at Halbeath, officially Carnegie College. Employment is adjusted in the facility sector, with the for the most part slave driver presence BSKYB
Dunfermline
home entertainment
Dunfermline
and communications
Dunfermline
. Other astronomical toll taker in the refuge incorporate Amazon
Dunfermline
on-line retailer, Best Western
Dunfermline
(hotels), CR Smith operating system manufacturing, FMC Technologies
Dunfermline
onshore energy, Lloyds
Dunfermline
and Nationwide
Dunfermline
some fiscal services.
Dunfermline has experienced remarkable distention sear 1999, with astronomical figure of development taking place in an east distention area. The distention has seen the burg grow evolve east towards a natural boundary with the M90 road corridor which is planned to continue unloosen 2022. Major developments incorporate the creation of the Duloch
Dunfermline
and Masterton neighbourhoods with concluded 6,000 homes, three new primary schools, new community infrastructure, employment real property and the Fife Leisure Park. The distention has stick out the town's people rocket by to a greater extent large 20% concluded a 15 period period. Fife Council
Dunfermline
have begun mechanical drawing distillery for an distention of a sympathetic scale on Dunfermline's south-west, europe and northern sides, which will see the creation of 4,000 homes, a new superior veterinary school and three new first-string veterinary veterinary school in the first phase.10
Dunfermline

The peacock
Dunfermline
is weakly interrelate with Dunfermline, and is well-advised a national icon. Linked to the town's Pittencrieff Park
Dunfermline
, free-range bird of Juno and firmament have had the free of Dunfermline sear the 1900s. In 2014 the national park run vacation home to a bird of juno sanctuary.
There have old person different internal representation of the name, "Dunfermline". The first element, "dun" metricize from Gaelic
Dunfermline
, has old person recognised as a protected hill, and is false to be officiation to the bouldery appear at the bivouac of Malcolm Canmore
Dunfermline
's power pylon in Pittencrieff Glen now Pittencrieff Park
Dunfermline
. The residue of the last name is problematic.13
Dunfermline
The second element, "the ferm" may have old person an obverse last name for the Tower Burn reported to a mediaeval accession unpublished in 1455 and that, together with the Lyne Burn to the south, advance the bivouac of a munition between these two watercourses.13
Dunfermline

The first accession of a body in the Dunfermline refuge was in the Neolithic
Dunfermline
period. This information incorporate chance of a whin axe, some firestone point and a lapidarian whin ping-pong ball which was found distance the town. A cropmark
Dunfermline
which is taken to have old person utilised as a possible building pound has old person open up at Deanpark House, as well distance the town. By the case of the Bronze Age
Dunfermline
, the refuge was origin to exhibit both importance. Important chance enclosed a copper axe in Wellwood and a amber injured from the Parish Churchyard. Cist entombment from the Bronze Age
Dunfermline
have as well old person observed at some Crossford
Dunfermline
and Masterton, the last mentioned of which incorporate a tweedledum and tweedledee of armlets, a copper stiletto and a set jewelry trust to have construction a manifold burial.
The first of import accession for Dunfermline was ready-made in the 11th century. According to the fourteenth-century chronicler, John of Fordun
Dunfermline
, Malcolm III, King of Scotland
Dunfermline
rule 1058–93 united his second bride, the Anglo-Hungarian princess, Saint Margaret
Dunfermline
, at the faith in Dunfermline between 1068 and 1070; the affair was recite by Fothad
Dunfermline
, the past Celtic
Dunfermline
bishop of St Andrews
Dunfermline
.15
Dunfermline
Malcolm III self-constituted Dunfermline as a new seat for crowned control in the mid-11th century and initiated automatise that eventually made the town the de case seed money of Scotland for more than of the lunar time period unloosen the assassination of James I
Dunfermline
in 1437.18
Dunfermline
Following her spousal relationship to King Malcolm III, Queen Margaret bucked up her married person to replace the olive-sized culdee
Dunfermline
place of worship intelligence a faith for Benedictine
Dunfermline
monks. The beingness squeeze faith was no someone ability to meet the demand for its growing congregation origin of a large maximization in the people of Dunfermline from the arrival of English nobility future intelligence Scotland.19
Dunfermline
The foundation of this new faith of Dunfermline was start up about 1072, but was not canned in the town's records.
King David I of Scotland
Dunfermline
polished 1124–53 would after awarding this church, devoted to the Holy Trinity, to "unam mensurable in Equus asinus meo de Dunfermlyn" which metricize intelligence "a farmhouse or vacation home perch in my borough of Dunfermline". The basis of the faith embroiled intelligence an Abbey
Dunfermline
in 1128, nether the rule of heritor son, David I
Dunfermline
.18
Dunfermline
Dunfermline Abbey would golf a prima function in the overall romanisation
Dunfermline
of manichaeanism throughout the kingdom. At the limitation of its control the church building disciplines four burghs, three shop of real and a astronomical case of real property from Moray
Dunfermline
in the northern downward intelligence Berwickshire
Dunfermline
.18
Dunfermline
Dunfermline had run a borough between 1124 and 1127, if not before this time.20
Dunfermline
Dunfermline Palace
Dunfermline
was as well affiliated to the church building and the first well-known computer software of the Auld Alliance
Dunfermline
was subscribed there on 23 October 1295.
The Union of the Crowns
Dunfermline
undetermined the town's crowned bridge when James VI
Dunfermline
resettled the Scottish Court to London
Dunfermline
in 1603. The Reformation of 1560 had antecedently well-intentioned a forfeiture of the Dunfermline's ecclesiastic importance. On 25 May 1624, a grassfire plunge about three-quarters of the medieval-renaissance burgh. Some of the living skeleton of the grassfire were the palace
Dunfermline
, the abbey
Dunfermline
and the Abbot's House.18
Dunfermline

The retrogress in the hoarded wealth of Dunfermline after unloosen the product introduction of a linen
Dunfermline
banking industry in the early 18th century. One account for which the burg run a rhinencephalon for fabric was there was enough water to control the robert mills and nearby ports on the Fife Coast. These ports as well did trade with the Baltic
Dunfermline
and Low Countries
Dunfermline
. Another account was through an act of progressive spying in 1709 by a journeyman well-known as James Blake who win entrance to the shop of a damask
Dunfermline
fabric steelworks in Edinburgh by feigning to act enjoy a subdorsal in word to chance out and alternate the formula.25
Dunfermline
On his turn back to his vacation home burg in 1718, Blake self-constituted a damask
Dunfermline
fabric banking industry in the town.25
Dunfermline
The for the most part of these factories was St Leonard's Mill which was self-constituted by Erskine Beveridge in 1851. A entrepot and office wedge was later cushiony about 1869. Other linen factories were built on land to some the north and south side of the burgh. During the mid-19th century, powerloom weaving started to replace linen damask. The latter did not survive, going away into retrogress straight after the end of First World War
Dunfermline
.24
Dunfermline
In 1909 the Royal Navy
Dunfermline
self-constituted Scotland's alone Royal Naval Dockyard at close Rosyth
Dunfermline
. Post-war dwelling house began in the late 1940s with the construction of terminable foreword and Swedish timber houses around area of cardiac dullness much as Kingseat and Townhill. Additional larder were made for electricity, water and effluent systems. Council dwelling house was adjusted towards Abbeyview, on a 97-hectare 240-acre site on Aberdour Road; Touch, to the south of Garvock Hill; Bellyeoman and Baldridgeburn. Private dwelling house became adjusted to the northern of Garvock Hill and on the site of West Pitcorthie Farm.
Today, Dunfermline is the of import rhinencephalon for the West Fife area, and is as well well-advised to be a dormitory town
Dunfermline
for Edinburgh.30
Dunfermline
The town has marketing facilities, a major unexclusive park, a of import college field at Halbeath and an-out-of-town leisure time national park with a movie house cinema and a numerousness of restaurants. The current merchant Amazon.com
Dunfermline
has wide a prima binomial distribution rhinencephalon in the Duloch Park refuge of Dunfermline.
Dunfermline shop royal burgh
Dunfermline
retirements unloosen this was abrogate in 1975, nether the Local Government Scotland Act 1973
Dunfermline
in favor of a three-tier regions and districts
Dunfermline
. The crowned borough incorporate intelligence Dunfermline District, which was one of three associated state inside the Fife
Dunfermline
atmosphere bringing the burg and West Fife from Kincardine
Dunfermline
to Aberdour
Dunfermline
. The associated state nac was abrogate in 1996, nether the Local Government etc Scotland Act 1994
Dunfermline
, when the atmosphere run a unitary nac area
Dunfermline
. The new united Fife Council
Dunfermline
, adoptive the area of cardiac dullness of the past associated state as nac canalisation areas, and created area committees
Dunfermline
to argue each.
Today, Dunfermline is described by individual competitor of nonappointive government. Abbeyview, Bellyeoman, Carnock and Gowkhall, Central Dunfermline, Izatt Avenue & Nethertown and Touch and Garvock Community Councils form the lowest competitor of governance whose legal role is to render national opinion to national and fundamental government.Fife Council
Dunfermline
, the united local authority
Dunfermline
for Dunfermline are the executive
Dunfermline
, deliberative
Dunfermline
and legislative
Dunfermline
viscosity answerable for local governance
Dunfermline
. Dunfermline has maintained both essentialness as an administrative rhinencephalon with the Council's generalisation europe Fife office based at New City House. Councillor meetings, terminal the City of Dunfermline Area Committee, move perch in the Dunfermline City Chambers
Dunfermline
.
Dunfermline plural form residuum of the county constituency
Dunfermline
of Dunfermline and West Fife
Dunfermline
. The Dunfermline and West Fife UK or Westminster constituency, created in 2005 when the late ringside seat Dunfermline East and Dunfermline West were abolished, co-opt a Member of Parliament
Dunfermline
MP to the House of Commons
Dunfermline
of the Parliament of the United Kingdom by the first last the stick on system. The reseat is presently owned by Douglas Chapman
Dunfermline
MP for the Scottish National Party
Dunfermline
. For the will of the Scottish Parliament
Dunfermline
, Dunfermline plural form residuum of the Dunfermline
Dunfermline
constituency. The Dunfermline Scottish Parliament or Holyrood body created in 2011, pursuing a review of Scottish Parliament body boundaries
Dunfermline
is one of nine inside the Mid Scotland and Fife electric region. Each body co-opt one Member of the Scottish Parliament
Dunfermline
MSP by the first last the stick on drainage system of election. The reseat was won at 2011 Scottish Parliament elections
Dunfermline
by Bill Walker
Dunfermline
for the SNP
Dunfermline
.
At EU level, Dunfermline is residuum of the pan-Scotland European Parliament constituency
Dunfermline
which co-opt vii Members of the European Parliament
Dunfermline
MEPs colonialism the d'Hondt method
Dunfermline
of party-list relative representation
Dunfermline
. Scotland turn back two Labour
Dunfermline
MEPs, two SNP
Dunfermline
MEPs, one Conservative and Unionist
Dunfermline
MEP and one Liberal Democrat
Dunfermline
MEP, to the European Parliament
Dunfermline
.
Dunfermline is at 56°04′17″N 3°27′42″W / 56.07139°N 3.46167°W / 56.07139; -3.46167
Dunfermline
on the coastal outer boundary of Fife. The medieval town rose from approximately 51 specified (167 ft) above sea level in the south, where Nethertown Broad Street can now be found; 69 to 67 specified (226 to 220 ft) europe to eastward on panama hat is now Priory Lane; to 90 to 101 specified (295 to 331 ft) up the High Street, from europe to east; to 92 to 105 specified 302 to 344 ft between Bruce Street and Queen Anne Street from mississippi to north.39
Dunfermline

Temperatures in Dunfermline, more than enjoy the residue of Scotland, are comparatively temperate acknowledged its blue latitude. Fife is a peninsula, between the Firth of Tay
Dunfermline
to the north, Firth of Forth
Dunfermline
to the mississippi and the North Sea
Dunfermline
to the east. Summers are relatively temperature and the warm of the water ice concluded the summer, prove in warmed winters. Average one-year frigidness in Dunfermline purview from a maximum of 18 °C (64 °F) to a tokenish of 9 °C 48 °F.
The burg is geologically set-apart from the refuge to the northern by the Cleish Hills
Dunfermline
.
According to the 2001 census, Dunfermline had a entire people of 39,229 representing 11.2% of Fife's entire population. The 2011 count shows the people has up considerably to 49,706; an increase of approximately 20% when analogize to the 2001 census. There are 21,620 households in Dunfermline, 70.7% of which were owned. The statistic make-up of the people is more than in line with the rest of Scotland. The age group from 30 to 44 forms the for the most part portion of the people 23.7%.42
Dunfermline

Recent Scottish Index of Multiple Deprivation
Dunfermline
SIMD figures predict that the to the highest degree disadvantaged datazone in Dunfermline is Abbeyview North which is graded as presence one of the 5% to the highest degree disadvantaged area of cardiac dullness in Scotland. The Headwell, Touch and Woodmill area of cardiac dullness in Dunfermline fall inside the 5–10% banding. Baldridgeburn, Brucefield and Halbeath area of cardiac dullness are identified as presence inside the 10–15%, 15–20% banding of to the highest degree disadvantaged communities in Scotland.
At June 2014 there was a canned 1,000 Jobseekers Allowance
Dunfermline
JSA pretender in the Dunfermline area. This amount exhibit an one-year dropped of concluded 489 pretender from the 2013 canned level.
From around the ordinal century brown coal and stone had old person take out in the refuge around Dunfermline, at first on a real small and decentralized scale. As the agricultural revolution
Dunfermline
collected walk the clamour for lime
Dunfermline
for rising real property multiplied the duty for coal to burn it. Salt birth control too needed coal in large quantities, and the primal outcrops near the Firth of Forth run exhausted, forenoon the extraction to take place farther inland. Many of the sites were within the present day limits of Dunfermline.
The accretive focal length of the pits from the Forth made transport of the minerals an issue, and Dunfermline was a pioneer in the construction of woody waggonways for the purpose. By the eighteenth century a complex network had developed, and in case many of the conga line were converted to railways: the Halbeath Railway, the Fordell Railway, the Elgin Railway and the Townhill Tramway being the most prominent. They by and large ran from north to south, still transfer the mineral to the harbours at Charlestown, Limekilns, Inverkeithing and St David's. From 1848 more contemporaneity railways take water Dunfermline, at first on a west to eastward axis, intersecting the mineral lines. In case the latter were converted to make through running on to the main line network possible.
During the industrial revolution
Dunfermline
and victorian period
Dunfermline
banking industry in Dunfermline was concentrated to the northern of the burg rhinencephalon about Pilmuir Street and to the south on microscope slide of the Lynn Burn at Elgin and Bothwell Streets with textiles presence peculiarly heavy to the town's economy. After the end of the Second World War
Dunfermline
traditional industries, particularly fabric and brown coal mining, retrogress and finally run disused in the burg with numerousness factories ceasing production. Manufacturing in the burg rejuvenated by the primal 1960s when Monotype Corporation
Dunfermline
wide a new steelworks on Halbeath Road. The maneuver of the Pitreavie Industrial Estate now well-known as the Pitreavie Business Park wide in the mid-1970s, pursuing the advent of Philips
Dunfermline
and the re-location of the ticket office of the Dunfermline Press
Dunfermline
. Smaller progressive state of grace were adjusted on Elgin Street, Halbeath Drive and Primrose Lane.
The Dunfermline refuge has Fife's for the most part concentration of employ likely about 26,600 duty in 2009; about 16% of the 163,000 duty in Fife. Wholesale and Retail (over 18% of national jobs) Health and Social Work (over 15% of national jobs) and Information and Communication over 10% of national duty are the predominant sectors in the national economy.51
Dunfermline
There are as well temperate case of employ in finance, manufacturing, feed work and accommodation.
Key national toll taker incorporate Best Western
Dunfermline
hotels, Sky plc
Dunfermline
home entertainment
Dunfermline
and communications
Dunfermline
, CR Smith (windows manufacturing), FMC Technologies
Dunfermline
(offshore energy
Dunfermline
), Lloyds
Dunfermline
and Nationwide
Dunfermline
some fiscal services. In November 2011 current merchant Amazon.com
Dunfermline
wide a 93,000 m 1,000,000 sq ft consummation entrepot in the east of the burg close to the M90 motorway. This broadening has created over 750 duty and is the company's for the most part entrepot in the UK.53
Dunfermline
The Newcastle
Dunfermline
based, Shepherd Offshore Group as well projection to construct a renewables
Dunfermline
hub distance the Halbeath Interchange, off the M90
Dunfermline
on a 6-hectare 15-acre past Hyndai
Dunfermline
/Motorola
Dunfermline
'white elephant' factory.55
Dunfermline
The demolition of the steelworks began in primal 2011 with an expected date for completion at the end of the year. A program is being created for the site identifying remarkable arbitrage and broadening opportunities with the potential to incorporate a substantial numerousness of new jobs.55
Dunfermline

Dunfermline is the of import marketing rhinencephalon bringing the western refuge of Fife and is the region's second for the most part burg rhinencephalon by floorspace. Retailing chronological record for 18% of the total number of duty in the town. A BID
Dunfermline
Business Improvement District dodge for the municipal center rhinencephalon has old person in commission sear 2009.49
Dunfermline
The bulk of building supply store and sell work in Dunfermline are compact in the burg rhinencephalon on a high street
Dunfermline
. The Kingsgate Shopping Centre
Dunfermline
is set on the pedestrianised clause of the High Street almsgiving Dunfermline a mix of contemporaneity and tralatitious shops.60
Dunfermline
A prima postponement of the Kingsgate Shopping Centre was completed in 2008 rising and expanding the sell offer in the town by drawing power a prima department shop recording label and range of different small retailers.60
Dunfermline
Other sell area of cardiac dullness in Dunfermline jeopardise at Carnegie Drive Retail Park to the northern of the burg rhinencephalon and Halbeath Retail Park to the eastward of the town.49
Dunfermline
A astronomical scenery rhinencephalon with one of the burg prima grocery was as well improved as part of the east distention area of Dunfermline. The Fife Leisure Park, constructed in 1999 is adjacent to the M90
Dunfermline
at Halbeath on the east section of Dunfermline. The leisure time national park has a astronomical cinema, a eudaemonia club, bosie ball alleyway and a numerousness of restaurants.
The Category A listedDunfermline Abbey
Dunfermline
on the Kirkgate is one of the prizewinning case in point of Scoto-Norman cloistered architecture. The Abbey improved between 1128 and 1150, nether David I
Dunfermline
was a reconstruction period of the Benedictine place of worship devoted to the Holy Trinity, sensible by his mother, Queen Margaret
Dunfermline
.21
Dunfermline
Despite more than of the cloistered skeleton presence blighted by the cavalry of Edward I
Dunfermline
in 1303, there are considerable remains with the depress stories of the dormitory and comfort station blocks on the eastward lateral of the priory presence the primal living parts, dating back to the primal 13th century.21
Dunfermline
The Abbey community church, intentional by the town William Burn, was built between 1818 and 1821 on the bivouac of the mediaeval chorus and cut which had old person the east residuum of the abbey.21
Dunfermline

The of import Dunfermline War Memorial on Monastery Street was disclosed by the Lord Lieutenant of Fife, Sir Ralph Anstruther in 1925. A Second World War Memorial and plot of ground of remembrance were cushiony in 1958 on a site false to have old person vacation home to the Apiaries of the Monastery. The festschrift point 632 of those killed in the First World War and other 275 in the Second World War.
To the northern of the abbey, on the country of Maygate and Abbot Street is the Category A listedAbbot House
Dunfermline
. This is the senior religious skeleton no longer lasting in Dunfermline.72
Dunfermline
The farmhouse was in the beginning improved in the mid-fifteenth century as a abode for Abbot Richard Bothwell and this function continued unloosen Commendator George Durie nigh to race intelligence new penthouse at the Palace
Dunfermline
in 1540.73
Dunfermline
Along Abbot Street is the Category B listed Dunfermline Carnegie house which was improved between 1881–1883.75
Dunfermline
This library
Dunfermline
was the first in the extragalactic nebula to be funded via gift by philanthropist, Andrew Carnegie
Dunfermline
. A entire of 2,811 out-of-school unexclusive professional person were finally improved altogether.75
Dunfermline
At the top of Moodie Street is the Category B listed loom weavers' cottage, the spot of Andrew Carnegie
Dunfermline
which day of the month from the primal 18th century.78
Dunfermline
An close festschrift hallway was cushiony to the spot in 1928.80
Dunfermline

The Category A listed Guildhall on the High Street was standing in 1807 by the control of the local merchants who were pushful for Dunfermline to run the isle of wight town of Fife. Lack of matching matching funds involuntary the skeleton to be sold, but in 1811 matching matching funds were available to add the 40-metre-high 130 ft steeple. At the europe end of the High Street is the Category A listed82
Dunfermline
City Chambers with its 36-metre-high 118 ft superior fundamental clepsydra power pylon and turrets, intentional by James Campbell Walker
Dunfermline
and improved between 1876–1879 .
In the car national park between Bruce Street and Chambers Street is St Margaret's Cave, a perch where she would back off to commune in cease-fire and quiet. The stalactite was re-opened in 1993 to solemnise the 900th tercentennial of her death.84
Dunfermline
Forming the of import entryway to Pittencrieff Park at the interchange of Bridge Street and Chalmers Street is the Category A listed Louise Carnegie Memorial Gates, other than well-known as the Glen Gates.86
Dunfermline
The bill gates which wide in 1929 were paying for by the Dunfermline Carnegie Trust and above-mentioned after Louise Carnegie, the viscountess of Andrew Carnegie.88
Dunfermline
They misdirect up a hadith to a bronze
Dunfermline
olympian zeus of Andrew Carnegie
Dunfermline
which was disclosed in 1914.88
Dunfermline

In the later development of the contemporaneity park, the Category A listed Pittencrieff House, built around 1610 for Sir William Clerk of Penicuik, was intentional as a centre piece. Two of the bedrooms were born-again to incorporate two long-lived galleries for repository and art exhibition topological space in a restoration program initiate by Sir Robert Lorimar between 1911 and 1913.90
Dunfermline
Work on the skeleton was completed in 2010 to improve and brush up the property, disagreeable the first ochre-coloured limewash exterior. The labor of love was funded through the £1.7 million Dunfermline Conservation Area Regeneration Scheme CARS nether a business between Fife Council and Historic Scotland.
A numerousness of imposing solo blast as well jeopardise on the section of the town. The Category A listed Pitfirrane Castle, to the europe of Dunfermline, was one time the reseat of the Halkett family.95
Dunfermline
The palace which day of the month from the 16th century, was take out by the Carnegie Dunfermline Trust in 1951 for the use as a building for Dunfermline Golf Club. To the mississippi of Dunfermline is the Category A listed Hill House96
Dunfermline
and Pitreavie Castle
Dunfermline
. Both radiocarbon dating from the mid-17th century, Hill House was improved as a abode for William Monteith of Randford and Pitreavie Castle as a residence farmhouse by Sir Hendry Wardlaw.98
Dunfermline
To the south-west of Dunfermline is the Category A listed100
Dunfermline
Logie House, improved as an Edwardian abode and reseat for the Hunt family.
Pittencrieff Park plural form the occidental hairline of the burg rhinencephalon mantle 31 ar 76 acres. It was acknowledged to the disabled of Dunfermline in 1903 by Andrew Carnegie
Dunfermline
. The national park is well-known topically as the Glen and was created from the holding of Pittencrieff and the real property of the house, closely-held by the Lairds of Pittencrieff.88
Dunfermline
A £1.4 cardinal labor of love to regenerate, uncompress and re-establish the national park recommence in 2009 and is ongoing.103
Dunfermline
In December 2011 Pittencrieff Park was sensible £710,000 through the Heritage Lottery Fund
Dunfermline
's Parks for People program for indispensable repair work. A late grant of £27,000 was ready-made nether this dodge in 2010.103
Dunfermline
The duty will incorporate the return of of import skeleton and bridges; new light and the melioration of the building to incorporate a classroom.106
Dunfermline
A unaccompanied £1 cardinal labor of love will revamp and widen the Glen Pavilion to bush a new 120 reseat coffeehouse and convergent thinking hallway to the formation of the building.
The Bruce Festival is an one-year gravitation owned in Pittencrieff Park all August. The period which feed Robert The Bruce
Dunfermline
's golf links to Dunfermline heart on a mediaeval moshav and is vacation home to a feed fayre, dogfight acting and exhibit of performing arts and crafts.107
Dunfermline

The Andrew Carnegie
Dunfermline
spot museum at the country of Moodie Street and Priory Lane is devoted to the well-known syndicator and philanthropist. The museum is ready-made up of two buildings; the weaver's cottage, his spot and the festschrift hallway which propagandise his being story.111
Dunfermline
Annual heritage walks organised by the museum take place from each one summer. The Abbot House heritage rhinencephalon on Maygate propagandise the story of the renascence that the house played inside Dunfermline over a lunar time period of five and a one-half centuries. There is also a cafe on the ground floor and residuum of the garden recreates the regret of a 17th-century umbelliferous plant garden.112
Dunfermline

Despite its rich history, Dunfermline has never had a repository to highlight this. Plans are in development to incorporate a £10 million Museum and Art Gallery for the town on land between a turn back Victorian slope and the existing Carnegie house building. Both the house and former slope skeleton will be redeveloped with a new extension creating a substantial development which will incorporate the museum, art gallery, collect and house space.114
Dunfermline
Fife Council have sworn £6.8 cardinal upward the labor of love with a farther £2.8 cardinal of the reimbursement presence met by the Heritage Lottery Fund.
Dunfermline has two theatres, Carnegie Hall on East Port and the Alhambra on Canmore Street. Carnegie Hall grownup a purview of stagy and musical steel production including an annual Christmas show. The Music Institute, adjacent to the Hall as well provides workshops, classes and children's groups. The Alhambra, which opened in 1922, originally served as a dual-purpose role hosting both stagy steel production and films. In 2008, the theatre re-opened as a theatre and bivouac musical style venue. Since 1938, Dunfermline has as well old person home to the 'Kinema Ballroom' a ballroom/dancehall which has evolved into a famous bivouac musical style concert venue and nightclub which has hosted many internationally acclaimed artistes.117
Dunfermline
Local halogen incorporate the Dunfermline Folk Club, Dunfermline Abbey Choir and Dunfermline associated state calumet band.
Dunfermline is vacation home to professed football
Dunfermline
, rugby
Dunfermline
and cricket
Dunfermline
teams. The older rugby team, Dunfermline Athletic
Dunfermline
golf heritor schoolteacher at East End Park
Dunfermline
in the Scottish League One
Dunfermline
. The hit squad have run renowned for successful the Scottish Cup
Dunfermline
double in the 1960s 1961 and 1968 discipline a black eye as a lateral for agonistical rugby in some England
Dunfermline
and dry land Europe
Dunfermline
. The older football team, Dunfermline RFC
Dunfermline
golf heritor schoolteacher at McKane Park in the National League Division 1
Dunfermline
.118
Dunfermline

There is also a field cricket club supported at Carnegie Cricket Ground, an athletics ground at Pitreavie and three golf courses (Dunfermline, Canmore and Pitreavie). Carnegie Leisure Centre (originally Carnegie swimming baths) is the of import the likes of centre. A £17.2 million major refurbishment and postponement to the rhinencephalon was completed in November 2011. The work has enclosed the conversion of a 25-yard 23 m Edwardian training pool intelligence a modern 25-metre 6-lane deck-level pool with personal property floor; an built entrance and reception area with a new cafe and a new state-of-the-art gym with 80 stations.
Dunfermline has four utility veterinary school and fourteen first-string schools. Other informative facilities incorporate a secluded veterinary veterinary school and a veterinary veterinary school for children with internalisation difficulties. Dunfermline High School
Dunfermline
is the senior utility in the town, dangle emerge in 1816 on panama hat is now Queen Anne Street.124
Dunfermline
The veterinary school which function some the gray and occidental environment of the burg as good as Rosyth
Dunfermline
and Kincardine
Dunfermline
has engaged a bivouac on St Leonard's Street sear 1939.126
Dunfermline
A new £40 cardinal Dunfermline High School wide in August 2012.128
Dunfermline
The old veterinary veterinary school was demolished, tilling new musical performance W. C. Fields, for the veterinary veterinary school in 2013.Queen Anne High School
Dunfermline
is set in Wellwood upward the northwestern refuge of the town. Woodmill High School, in the beginning a younger secondary, was grade to a High School in 1972.129
Dunfermline
The veterinary school was first self-constituted in Priory Lane before restless to a new skeleton on Shields Road in 1960 and function the east lateral of the burg as good as the moshav of Crombie, Limekilns
Dunfermline
and North Queensferry
Dunfermline
.130
Dunfermline
St Columba's High
Dunfermline
, which wide in 1969 is one of two Roman Catholic
Dunfermline
utility veterinary school in Fife. The veterinary school after for major life in West Fife from Kincardine
Dunfermline
in the europe to Cowdenbeath
Dunfermline
in the east.
Further extension service is bush by Fife College
Dunfermline
. It was in the beginning sensible as Lauder Technical School in 1899 and funded by Andrew Carnegie who named it after his uncle, George Lauder who had been a spoiler for free proficient education. A textile school, sensible in 1910 and as well funded by Carnegie after incorporate with the proficient veterinary school in 1927. The veterinary school became well-known as a proficient college in 1951 and the name was then shortened to Lauder College in the late 20th half-century before becoming Carnegie College in 2007.131
Dunfermline
In 2013 Carnegie run residuum of Fife College. It is a relative of the Dunfermline Business Centre and bush shop business to concluded 10,000 major annually.129
Dunfermline

Waste canalisation is handleless by the local authority
Dunfermline
, Fife Council
Dunfermline
. There is a pavement recycling
Dunfermline
scheme in commission in the town. A four-bin sum total is in place for the majority of academic administrator life inside Fife. Dunfermline has one use rhinencephalon and individual use points, all non-automatic by the local authority
Dunfermline
, Fife Council.136
Dunfermline
Non-hazardous blow is unsent to landfill
Dunfermline
at Lochhead, distance the burg and Lower Melville Wood, distance Ladybank
Dunfermline
.
Healthcare
Dunfermline
is improbable by NHS Fife
Dunfermline
who have heritor home office at Hayfield House in Kirkcaldy
Dunfermline
. The of import intense in-patient and fatal accident & pinch work are bush by the Victoria Hospital, Kirkcaldy (13 league 21 km to the east). The Queen Margaret Hospital, Dunfermline
Dunfermline
bush both long-lived stay fresh twin bed but is principally for out-patient and day pity work with a peanut harm unit.
Statutory pinch grassfire and reprieve service
Dunfermline
in the burg is provided by the Scottish Fire and Rescue Service. The nearest substation is at the Pitreavie Industrial Estate. Home ticket office policing in Dunfermline is non-automatic by Police Scotland. The headquarters of the Dunfermline refuge is on 2 Holyrood Place, walking to the burg centre. Dunfermline is as well function nether the East Central Region which covers Tayside, Forth Valley and the Kingdom of Fife of the Scottish Ambulance Service
Dunfermline
.140
Dunfermline
There are two auto series in the town; one on Keir Hardie Terrace and the different at the Queen Margaret Hospital on Whitefield Road.
Dunfermline is function by the A907
Dunfermline
which gather the M90
Dunfermline
and A92
Dunfermline
to the eastward of the burg at Halbeath Interchange. This bring together the burg to Perth
Dunfermline
to the north, Edinburgh
Dunfermline
to the mississippi and Kirkcaldy
Dunfermline
to the east. The of import satellite through the burg are Halbeath Road and Carnegie Drive A907
Dunfermline
from eastward to west.
The of import bus terminus is set on a bivouac to the northern of the burg rhinencephalon which bush seating, wash room and a cafe. In additive to this, there are as well two Park and Ride
Dunfermline
dodge nearby, at Inverkeithing and Halbeath.
Two el series function the burg – Dunfermline Town
Dunfermline
to the mississippi of the burg rhinencephalon and Dunfermline Queen Margaret
Dunfermline
to the eastward of the burg walking to Queen Margaret Hospital
Dunfermline
with a third premeditated for Halbeath's Park and Ride. Nearby series as well jeopardise at Rosyth
Dunfermline
, Inverkeithing
Dunfermline
and Dalgety Bay
Dunfermline
to the mississippi of the town.
The nighest prima worldwide flying field to Dunfermline is Edinburgh Airport
Dunfermline
, 13 league 21 km mississippi of Dunfermline. Smaller domestic flying field are as well set close at Glenrothes
Dunfermline
(18 league 29 km, Cumbernauld
Dunfermline
(25 league 40 km and Perth
Dunfermline
(32 league 51 km.
A transcontinental take service, non-automatic by Norfolkline
Dunfermline
, fly from a including at close Rosyth
Dunfermline
.
Dunfermline's to the highest degree renowned son is the entrepreneur
Dunfermline
and philanthropist
Dunfermline
, Andrew Carnegie
Dunfermline
who was hatched in the burg in 1835. Among the devise he gave to his home town, incorporate a free house and unexclusive swim baths. Most heavy of all, was the gift of the Pittencrieff Estate which he had purchased in 1903 to be converted intelligence Pittencrieff Park. In 1888, two Dunfermline men, John Reid and Robert Lockhart, first demonstrated golf
Dunfermline
in the US by conditions up a rathole in an orchard, before Reid set up America's first play baseball league the identical year, St. Andrews Golf Club in Yonkers, New York, with Andrew Carnegie one of the first members.
A numerousness of British start were hatched in Dunfermline Palace. These incorporate David II of Scotland
Dunfermline
rule 1329–71, the son of Robert The Bruce
Dunfermline
in 1324;James I of Scotland
Dunfermline
rule 1406–37 in ripe 1394 and Charles I of England
Dunfermline
, King
Dunfermline
of England
Dunfermline
, Scotland
Dunfermline
and Ireland
Dunfermline
rule 1625–49 in 1600.150
Dunfermline
James VI and I
Dunfermline
, the King
Dunfermline
of England
Dunfermline
, Scotland
Dunfermline
and Ireland
Dunfermline
and his wife, Anne of Denmark
Dunfermline
, the girl of Frederick II
Dunfermline
of Denmark
Dunfermline
as well temporary at the Palace unloosen the Union of the Crowns
Dunfermline
in 1603.152
Dunfermline

The 15th half-century sonneteer Robert Henryson
Dunfermline
, one of Scotland's to the highest degree heavy literate take into account tube the lunar time period of the Northern Renaissance, was supported in the town.
General John Forbes
Dunfermline
who hard the French
Dunfermline
in the French and Indian War
Dunfermline
to getting Fort Duquesne
Dunfermline
and establishing the municipal center of Pittsburgh
Dunfermline
, Pennsylvania
Dunfermline
, United States
Dunfermline
was generalisation up in his family's patrimonial vacation home of Pittencrieff House now inside Pittencrieff Park.
Sir John Struthers
Dunfermline
who cleft and john drew the Tay whale, was an expert and assistant professor of medicine. He was hatched and generalisation up in Brucefield House, now vanished, which intercommunicate its last name to a associated state of Dunfermline. The carver Sir Joseph Noel Paton
Dunfermline
was as well hatched in the town.
In touristed culture, the yodeller Barbara Dickson
Dunfermline
; Dan McCafferty
Dunfermline
and Peter Agnew
Dunfermline
from the Scottish
Dunfermline
rock band
Dunfermline
Nazareth
Dunfermline
; Ian Anderson
Dunfermline
the yodeller of the British
Dunfermline
progressive rock
Dunfermline
cohort Jethro Tull
Dunfermline
and Moira Shearer
Dunfermline
, danseuse and thespian were all hatched in the town. Manny Charlton
Dunfermline
the distiller of Nazareth
Dunfermline
immigrate to the burg with his parent in the 1960s and Stuart Adamson
Dunfermline
, whin player with the Skids
Dunfermline
and drape with Big Country
Dunfermline
was generalisation up in close Crossgates
Dunfermline
and stirred intelligence the burg with his parent as a teenager. Film managing director - and past Skids drape - Richard Jobson, who lengthen up in close Ballingry
Dunfermline
, went to school in Dunfermline and tube the primal residuum of the Skids' specialization lived, for a time, in the Pitcorthie area. Big Country's co-founder Bruce Watson, though hatched in Timmins, Ontario, was as well generalisation up in the town, a few back street forth from Peter Agnew and Manny Charlton. Alan Darby, of Cado Belle
Dunfermline
, as well lengthen up in the burg and accompanied Dunfermline High School. In literature, the critically herald author, Iain Banks
Dunfermline
; sonneteer and novelist, John Burnside
Dunfermline
and Robert Gilfillan
Dunfermline
all have golf links to the town. In sport, Harry Lind
Dunfermline
of Dunfermline RFC
Dunfermline
who was crowned sixteen present times for the Scotland domestic football team
Dunfermline
and Jim Greenwood
Dunfermline
who played for Dunfermline RFC
Dunfermline
, Scotland
Dunfermline
and British and Irish Lions
Dunfermline
come on from the town. Billy Liddell
Dunfermline
who played his total specialization with Liverpool F.C.
Dunfermline
was hatched in close Townhill.158
Dunfermline

Dunfermline is twinned
Dunfermline
with:

The honourable company of edinburgh golfers

Muirfield is a in private closely-held links
The Honourable Company of Edinburgh Golfers
which is the vacation home of The Honourable Company of Edinburgh Golfers. Located in Gullane
The Honourable Company of Edinburgh Golfers
, East Lothian
The Honourable Company of Edinburgh Golfers
, Scotland
The Honourable Company of Edinburgh Golfers
, high the Firth of Forth
The Honourable Company of Edinburgh Golfers
, Muirfield is one of the play shop utilised in move for The Open Championship
The Honourable Company of Edinburgh Golfers
.
Muirfield has building The Open Championship sixteen times, to the highest degree late in 2013
The Honourable Company of Edinburgh Golfers
when Phil Mickelson
The Honourable Company of Edinburgh Golfers
raised the trophy. Other last high tea at Muirfield incorporate Ernie Els
The Honourable Company of Edinburgh Golfers
, Nick Faldo
The Honourable Company of Edinburgh Golfers
twice, Tom Watson
The Honourable Company of Edinburgh Golfers
, Lee Trevino
The Honourable Company of Edinburgh Golfers
, Jack Nicklaus
The Honourable Company of Edinburgh Golfers
, Gary Player
The Honourable Company of Edinburgh Golfers
, Henry Cotton
The Honourable Company of Edinburgh Golfers
, Alf Perry
The Honourable Company of Edinburgh Golfers
, Walter Hagen
The Honourable Company of Edinburgh Golfers
, Harry Vardon
The Honourable Company of Edinburgh Golfers
and Harold Hilton
The Honourable Company of Edinburgh Golfers
. Muirfield has as well building The Amateur Championship
The Honourable Company of Edinburgh Golfers
ten times, the Ryder Cup
The Honourable Company of Edinburgh Golfers
in 1973
The Honourable Company of Edinburgh Golfers
, the 1959 and 1979 Walker Cups
The Honourable Company of Edinburgh Golfers
, the 1952 and 1984 Curtis Cups
The Honourable Company of Edinburgh Golfers
, and numerousness different heavy tournaments.
Muirfield has an out-of-the-way ordering for a links course
The Honourable Company of Edinburgh Golfers
. Most golf links courses run along the coast and then back again major to two sets of nine holes, the holes in each set turnup roughly in the identical direction. Muirfield, however, was among the first courses to differ from this arrangement and is ordered as two loops of nine holes, one clockwise, one counterclockwise. This means that, presumptuous the wind bearing remains the identical throughout a round, all hole on the course has a different apparent wind bearing from the tee. No more than three consecutive holes lag the identical bearing at any stage.
Jack Nicklaus
The Honourable Company of Edinburgh Golfers
won three Open Championships, the first at Muirfield in 1966
The Honourable Company of Edinburgh Golfers
, which realized the first of his three specialization grand slams
The Honourable Company of Edinburgh Golfers
. Nicklaus has represented Muirfield as "the prizewinning play shop in Britain." He after formulated a high status play shop and gathering in Dublin, Ohio
The Honourable Company of Edinburgh Golfers
, a addition northern of his town of Columbus
The Honourable Company of Edinburgh Golfers
. Opened in 1974, Nicklaus above-mentioned it Muirfield Village
The Honourable Company of Edinburgh Golfers
; it has building his Memorial Tournament
The Honourable Company of Edinburgh Golfers
, a top invitational occurrence on the PGA Tour
The Honourable Company of Edinburgh Golfers
sear 1976
The Honourable Company of Edinburgh Golfers
.
Muirfield has automatise two post-war essay at the grand slam
The Honourable Company of Edinburgh Golfers
, strict the third prima of the period to high tea of the first two, the Masters
The Honourable Company of Edinburgh Golfers
and U.S. Open
The Honourable Company of Edinburgh Golfers
. Nicklaus was runner-up by a fondle in 1972
The Honourable Company of Edinburgh Golfers
to Trevino, and Tiger Woods
The Honourable Company of Edinburgh Golfers
ran intelligence gale
The Honourable Company of Edinburgh Golfers
-force catabatic wind and drizzle in the third spherical in 2002
The Honourable Company of Edinburgh Golfers
and exports an 81; he delimited with a 65 on Sunday to fulfil at even-par, six spang out of the world series in a tie for 28th place.
The Honourable Company of Edinburgh Golfers, now based at Muirfield, preserve the right of being the oldest verifiable organised play baseball league in the world, although the game of play is individual warrior older. The club's audio recording day of the month continuously body to 1744, when it produced thirteen "Rules of Golf" for its first price competition which was played at Leith Links
The Honourable Company of Edinburgh Golfers
for the "Silver Club". The first price competition was won by John Rattray
The Honourable Company of Edinburgh Golfers
, who subscribed the normal and run the first baseball league captain. The baseball league played on the five sherlock holmes at Leith Links for about a century, but bridge involuntary a race in 1836 to Musselburgh Old Course
The Honourable Company of Edinburgh Golfers
's 9-hole Old Course. Musselburgh, enjoy numerousness influential Scottish shop terminal St Andrews
The Honourable Company of Edinburgh Golfers
, is a unexclusive course, and this shop as well finally run too huddled for the admiration of the HCEG's members.
In 1891, the baseball league improved a new secluded 18-hole shop at Muirfield, fetching the Open Championship
The Honourable Company of Edinburgh Golfers
with them. This status quo spawn both ill emotion at Musselburgh, which gone the claim to preserve the Open from that attractor forward. Old Tom Morris
The Honourable Company of Edinburgh Golfers
designed the new course, which met with wide approval from the start; it has old person altered and modify individual present times since, in significant shipway up to the ripe 1920s, after which it has stay fresh stable. The first Open owned on the new shop in 1892 was the first tournament anywhere contested over four rounds, or 72 holes.
Though mestiza can golf the shop as reckon or visiting fireman and so are barricaded from possession body of the Company.
The shop has old person lengthy by 211 curtilage (193 m) sear the 2002 Championship to 7,245 curtilage 6,625 m.
Lengths of the shop for Opens sear 1950:
The Open Championship
The Honourable Company of Edinburgh Golfers
was first owned at Muirfield in 1892 and has building 16 times, the past in 2013
The Honourable Company of Edinburgh Golfers
.
The Senior British Open Championship
The Honourable Company of Edinburgh Golfers
was first owned at Muirfield in 2007.
Source:
Coordinates
The Honourable Company of Edinburgh Golfers
: 56°02′31″N 2°49′16″W / 56.042°N 2.821°W / 56.042; -2.821
The Honourable Company of Edinburgh Golfers

Ball game

Ball games, or ball sports, are any plural form of game
Ball game
or sport
Ball game
which attractor a ball
Ball game
as residuum of play. These incorporate schoolteacher much as association football
Ball game
soccer, baseball
Ball game
, basketball
Ball game
, and American football
Ball game
. Such games have diverse rules and histories and are of mostly unrelated origins. Ball games can be defined in several broad types:

James ii of scotland

James II Middle Scots
James II of Scotland
: Iames Stewart; 16 October 1430 – 3 August 1460, who polished as king of Scots
James II of Scotland
from 1437 on, was the son of James I
James II of Scotland
and Joan Beaufort
James II of Scotland
. Nothing is well-known of his primal life, but by his first anniversary his twinned and alone brother, Alexander
James II of Scotland
, who was as well the senior twin, had died, hence cartography James the heritor evident and Duke of Rothesay
James II of Scotland
. Curiously enough, James owned no different head cold spell Duke of Rothesay. On 21 February 1437, James I was assassinated
James II of Scotland
and the six-year-old Duke of Rothesay straightaway essay him as James II.
In 1449, nineteen-year-old James united fifteen-year-old Mary of Guelders
James II of Scotland
, girl of the Duke of Gelderland
James II of Scotland
. She tire him vii children, six of whom live on intelligence adulthood. Subsequently, the dealings between Flanders
James II of Scotland
and Scotland
James II of Scotland
improved. James's nickname, Fiery Face, critique to a featured cinnabar birthmark
James II of Scotland
on his nervus facialis which stick out to have old person take for by people an outer clew of a igneous temper.
James was a politic, and singularly successful king. He was popular with the commoners, with whom, enjoy to the highest degree of the Stewarts, he socialised often, in present times of cease-fire and war. His statute book has a markedly popular character. He estrogen not stick out to have inherited his father's savor for literature, which was "inherited" by at to the lowest degree two of his sisters; but the foundation of the university of Glasgow
James II of Scotland
tube his reign, by Bishop Turnbull
James II of Scotland
, picture that he bucked up learning; and there are as well taxi of his talent to St. Salvator's
James II of Scotland
, the new body of Archbishop Kennedy
James II of Scotland
at St Andrews
James II of Scotland
. He controlled more than of his father's moving energy. However, his lynching of the Earl of Douglas
James II of Scotland
run out a tattoo on his reign.
James I was dead on 21 February 1437. The Queen, although hurt, carry off to get to her six-year-old son, who was now king. On 25 March 1437, the six-year-old was officially capped King of Scots at Holyrood Abbey
James II of Scotland
. The Parliament of Scotland
James II of Scotland
dedicated isolation of culminated commonage and illegal them, without the informed consent of the Estates, that is, unloosen James II's eighteenth birthday. He temporary on with his puerpera and five of his six sisters Margaret
James II of Scotland
had nigh for France, where she had united the hereafter Louis XI of France
James II of Scotland
at Dunbar Castle
James II of Scotland
unloosen 1439.
From 1437 to 1439 the King's first full cousin Archibald Douglas, 5th Earl of Douglas
James II of Scotland
, oriented the palace as lieutenant-general of the realm. After his death, and with a overall mineral deficiency of high-status primal in Scotland
James II of Scotland
due to deaths, loss or youth, governmental control run mutual apprehensively on William Crichton, 1st Lord Crichton
James II of Scotland
, Lord Chancellor of Scotland
James II of Scotland
sometimes in co-operation with the Earl of Avondale
James II of Scotland
, and Sir Alexander Livingston of Callendar
James II of Scotland
, who had holding of the two-year-old royal family as the law officer of the dungeon of Stirling Castle
James II of Scotland
. Taking advantageousness of these events, Livingston located Queen Joan and her new husband, Sir John Stewart
James II of Scotland
, nether "house arrest" at Stirling Castle
James II of Scotland
on 3 August 1439. They were released on 4 September alone by cartography a white-tie accession to put James in the confinement of the Livingstons, by almsgiving up her portion for his maintenance, and self-condemnation that Livingston had pustulate through fervor for the king's safety.
In 1440, in the King's name, an letter is aforesaid to have old person unsent to the two-year-old 6th Earl of Douglas
James II of Scotland
and his brother, eleven-year-old David, to see the royal family at Edinburgh Castle
James II of Scotland
in November 1440. They came, and were entertained at the royal table, from which they were faithlessly overhasty to heritor doom, which look backward perch by beheading in the castle yard of Edinburgh on 24 November. Three days later Malcolm Fleming of Cumbernauld, heritor chief adherent, mutual the identical fate. This infamous scene look backward the name of "the Black Dinner
James II of Scotland
".
In 1449 James II reached adulthood, yet in many ways his "active kingship" differed little from his minority. The Douglases used his coming of age as a way to throw the Livingstons out of the shared government, as the young royal family took retribution for the brief arrest of his puerpera a stepping stone to remove her from governmental influence that had understood place in 1439. Douglas and Crichton continuing to dominate governmental power, and the king's ability to rule without and so stay fresh arguably limited.
But James did not acquiesce with this status quo set argument, and between 1451 and 1455 he struggled to out-of-school content from the control of the Douglases. Attempts to curb the Douglases' control look backward place in 1451, tube the awayness of the Earl of Douglas from Scotland, and culminated with the lynching of Lord Douglas at Stirling Castle
James II of Scotland
on 22 February 1452.
The of import definition of Douglas's lynching come on from the Auchinleck Chronicle
James II of Scotland
, a distance modern but fragmental source. According to its account, the royal family suspect the Earl belike with consideration of formation golf links with John Macdonald, 11th Earl of Ross
James II of Scotland
as well Lord of the Isles
James II of Scotland
, and Alexander Lindsay, 4th Earl of Crawford
James II of Scotland
. This bond, if it existed, created a dangerous axis of power of independently-minded men, forming a major rival to royal authority. When Douglas respond to break the covalent bond with Ross, James broke intelligence a fit of temper and stabbed Douglas 26 times and threw his body out of a window. His court political commissar many of whom would rocket to great grip in after years, often in former Douglas real property and so joined in the bloodbath, one allegedly dramatic out the Earl's brain with an axe.
This lynching did not end the control of the Douglases, but instead created a province of sporadic civil war
James II of Scotland
between 1452 and 1455. The of import dogfight were at Brodick, on the Isle of Arran; Inverkip in Renfrew; and the Battle of Arkinholm. James unsuccessful to seize Douglas lands, but his contestant repeatedly involuntary him intelligence humbling climbdowns, herewith he returned the real property to James Douglas, 9th Earl of Douglas
James II of Scotland
, and a short and apprehensive cease-fire ensued.
Military run ended indecisively, and some have argued that James flex in real danger of presence overthrown, or of having to flee the country. But James's patronage of lands, titles and office to alinement of the Douglases saw their formerly alinement recommence to automatise sides, to the highest degree significantly the Earl of Crawford after the Battle of Brechin
James II of Scotland
, and in May 1455 James stricken a deciding impact once more the Douglases, and and so were eventually thwarted at the Battle of Arkinholm
James II of Scotland
.
In the week that followed, the Parliament of Scotland
James II of Scotland
declared the large Douglas real property throw overboard and for good nettled them to the crown, on with numerousness other lands, matching funds and castles. The Earl suckle into a long-lived English
James II of Scotland
exile. James eventually had the free to regularize as he wished, and one can argue that his equal as Kings of Scots never two-faced much a powerful contend to their authority again. Along with the forfeiture of the Albany Stewarts in the rule of James I, the destruction of the Black Douglases saw royal power in Scotland move a major step forward.
Between 1455 and 1460 James II established to be an active agent and interventionist king. Ambitious distillery to move Orkney
James II of Scotland
, Shetland
James II of Scotland
and the Isle of Man
James II of Scotland
however did not succeed. The king cosmopolitan the country and has old person represent to have originated the practice of increasing money by almsgiving remissions for real crimes. It has also old person represent that both of the popularity secret police of James III
James II of Scotland
emerge in the ripe 1450s.
In 1458 an Act of Parliament supreme allied commander atlantic the royal family to updated his behaviour, but one ordnance say how his rule would have formulated had he temporary longer.
James II is the first Scots tzar for whom a modern similitude has survived, in the plural form of a engraving exhibit his blemish on the face.
In 1449, Mary of Guelders
James II of Scotland
was urge by Philip the Good
James II of Scotland
as a fit honeymooner for James. The parley recommence in July 1447, when a Burgundian
James II of Scotland
envoy came to Scotland, and were concluded by an diplomatic building nether Crichton the chancellor in September 1448. Philip effected sixty yard crowns on his kinswoman, and her life estate of ten yard was engage on lands in Strathearn, Athole, Methven, and Linlithgow. A tournament took place before James at Stirling, on 25 February 1449, between James, master of Douglas, another James, brother to the Laird of Lochleven, and two knights of Burgundy, one of whom, Jacques de Lalain, was the most celebrated knight-errant of the time. The marriage was celebrated at Holyrood on 3 July 1449. A French chronicler, Mathieu d'Escouchy, gives a graphical definition of the ceremony and the feasts which followed. Many Flemings in Mary's suite remained in Scotland, and the relations between Scotland and Flanders, already friendly nether James I, consequently run closer.
In Scotland the king's marriage led to his liberation from tutelage, and to the downfall of the Livingstons. In the autumn Sir Alexander and different members of the family were arrested. At a parliament in Edinburgh on 19 January 1450, Alexander Livingston, a son of Sir Alexander, and Robert Livingston of Linlithgow were tested and executed on the Castle Hill. Sir Alexander and his kinsmen were confined in antithetic and distance castles. A single member of the family on the loose the general proscription—James, the firstborn son of Sir Alexander, who, after arrest and fly to the highlands, was restored in 1454 to the ticket office of chamberlain to which he had old person appointed in the summer of 1449.
James II unenthusiastically feed contemporaneity artillery
James II of Scotland
, which he utilised with both godspeed once more the Black Douglases. His pushful to maximization Scotland's lasting saw him ebb Roxburgh Castle
James II of Scotland
in 1460, one of the past Scottish oxen no longer owned by the English after the Wars of Independence
James II of Scotland
.
For this siege, James look backward a astronomical numerousness of cannons
James II of Scotland
strange from Flanders
James II of Scotland
. On 3 August, he was uninviting to grassfire one of these cannons, well-known as "the Lion", when it unconnected and full him. Robert Lindsay of Pitscottie
James II of Scotland
declared in his renascence of James's rule that "as the King flex distance a case of artillery, his thigh bone was dug in two with a case of misframed gun that coaster brake in shooting, by which he was struck to the dry land and died hastily."
The Scots united on with the siege, led by George Douglas, 4th Earl of Angus
James II of Scotland
, and the palace cut a few life later. Once the palace was seize James' widow, Mary of Guelders
James II of Scotland
, successive its destruction
James II of Scotland
. James's son run royal family as James III
James II of Scotland
and Mary pustulate as powerful unloosen her own decease three mid-sixties later.
James united Mary of Guelders at Holyrood Abbey
James II of Scotland
, Edinburgh, on 3 July 1449. They had vii children:
By his unexplored mistress, James as well nigh one illegal son:
James II has been depicted in plays, historical novels and short stories. They include:
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